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Published In: Illustrations of the Botany ... of the Himalayan Mountains ... 1: 376. 1839. (Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts.) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: ABDUL GHAFOOR
Flower/Fruit: Fl. Per.: October-January.
Type: Lectotype: “Habitat in India”, Herb. Linn. 1106. 1 (LINN).
Distribution: Distribution: Gregarious in ditches, pools, lakes, wet ricefields and slow-running water streams in S.E. Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia from sea level to 6000'; introduced in America and elsewhere.
Comment/Acknowledgements: The plant is eaten by some fresh water fish and may be used as manure wherever it occurs in large quantities. It becomes a serious menace to navigation in large lakes and in irrigation canals as it reduces the rate of flow of water.
Illustration: Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle (Illustration)
Map Location: B-6 Peshawar valley, Akbarpura, Pang Tireth, fresh clear water, large natural pond, small ponds, abundant, amphibious, Bashir Ahmed Suhail 204 (K); B-7 Swat, near Saidu Sharif Village, c 3500 ft., among cultivated valleys and hills of sparse vegetation, R.J. Rodin 5432 (K); B-8 Kashmir, Srinagar, Dal Lake, 5200 ft., C.R. Lancaster 31 (BM); Kashmir, Shalimar, Dal Lake, 5500 ft., R.R. Stewart 3210 (K); Kashmir, Oct. 1848, T. Thomson s.n. (K); Kashmir, environs of Srinagar, within a circle of 8 miles radius, 2 to 20 October, 1856, Schlagintweit Cat. No. 4606 (BM); Kashmir Lake, 5500 ft., Aug. 1921, R.R. & I.D. Stewart s.n. (RAW); Dal Lake Srinagar, 5000 ft., still water in lake, F. Ludlow & G. Sheriff 6 (BM); Kashmir, Manasbal, 5200 ft., 25.6.1940, in 2-5 ft. of still water, Ludlow & Sheriff 7677 (BM); C-7 Jhelum Dist. (Salt Range), Kotas Raj Spring, ± 2000 ft., E. Nasir & M.A. Siddiqi 4349 (K; BM); Rawalpindi, Oct. 1871, J.E.T. Aitchison 543 (K); D-8 Lahore., 1000 ft., Sept. 1846, T. Thomson s.n. (K); F-4 Dadu Dist.: Mancher Lake, abundant in water all over with Pota¬mogeton sp & Ceratophyllum sp. S.M.H. Jafri 2621 (KUH); c. 4 miles from Sehwan on way to Dadu, in a pond, submerged, white flowers floating on surface of water, Kamal Akhter Malik et al 2132 (KUH); Ad Lacum Munchar, Sind, Stocks (BM); Lake Munchur, Stocks 1197 (K); Scinde, Stocks (K); G-4 Dhabeji, in water stream below the bridge, common, S.M.H. Jarfi 2436 (K); Chilya Bund, Thatta, submerged 15.4.1964, S.I. Ali s.n. (KUH); Jangshahi, Haleji Lake, common in water, S.M.H. Jafri 1609 (KUH); Jam branch canal 4 miles from Gharo, Ghulamullah Road, common, 7.6. 1976, K. Aziz s.n. (KUH); In Dand Lake, Chach Jehan Khan, floating in water, A. Ghafoor 891 (KUH); water tank near Botany Department, Karachi University Campus, 2.2.1963, Miss Khush Gul s.n. (KUH).


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Caulescent, glabrous, profusely branched freshwater herb with 5-50 mm long internodes and fibrous roots at some nodes. Leaves oblong-linear to lanceolate, (8-) 10-40 (-50) mm long, (1-) 2-3 mm wide, green, margin serrate-dentate, apex acute-apiculate; nodal scales 2, axillary, membranous with orange brown cilia on margin. Male spathe 1.25-1.50 mm long, bursting open to liberate male flower, beset with subulate appendages. Male flower: sepals reflexed, 1.5-3 mm long; petals linear-spathulate, equalling the sepals, patent or reflexed, obtuse; stamens with minute filaments. Female spathe c. 5 mm long, reddish-brown striped, bidentate. Ovary oblong, 3.4 mm long, with 1.5-10 cm long slender rostrum. Fruit ± terete. 5-7 mm long. Seeds dark brown, c. 2.5 mm long.
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