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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/15/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 10/15/2013)
Species Malpighia emarginata Sesse & Moc. ex DC
PlaceOfPublication Prodr. 1: 578. 1824.
Note TYPE: Flora Mexicana Icones ined. no. 135. (G).
Synonym Malpighia berteriana Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg. ed. 16. 2: 383. 1825. TYPE: not known. Malpighia retusa Benth., Bot. Voy. Sulphur: 74. 1844. TYPE: Ecuador, Guayaquil, Puna Island, Sinclair, 1836-39 (K, holotype). Malpighia lanceolata Griseb., Abh. Konigl. Ges. Wiss. Go$ttingen 7: 185. 1857. TYPE: Guadeloupe, Du- chassaing 5 (GOET, holotype). Malpighia urens var. lanceolata (Griseb.) Grieseb., Fl. Brit. W. In. 117. 1859. TYPE: M. lanceolata Griseb. Malpighia umbellata Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 1: 310. 1895. TYPE: Mexico, Sonora, Palmer 799 (US- 208986, holotype; US-208987, isotype). Malpighia punicifolia var. lancifolia Niedenzu, Gen. Malpighia 8. 1899. TYPE: Guadeloupe, Duss 2888 (NY, lectotype; MO, US, isotypes). Malpighia punicifolia var. vulgaris Niedenzu, Gen. Malpighia 8. 1899. TYPE: Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, Eggers 167 (GOET, lectotype; B, G, M, P, isotypes). Malpighia punicifolia var. obovata Niedenzu, Gen. Malpighia 8. 1899. TYPE: Puerto Rico, Sintenis 1596 (G, lectotype; G-BOIS, M, P, isotypes). Malpighia punicifolia auct., non. L.
Description Erect shrub to small tree to 6(-8) m tall, young branches, petioles and leaves green, strigillose, older branches smooth or more commonly with prominent, whitish or yellowish, round lenticels. Leaves subchartaceous to chartaceous, rarely subcoriaceous, borne laxly along the branches, internodes (2-)3-4(-5) cm long, or more commonly crowded in short shoots, internodes ca. 1.0 mm long; petioles slender, usually glabrous (1-)1.5-3.0(-4) mm long; blades variously el- liptic-obovate, lanceolate-obovate, oblong-obovate or obovate, rarely ovate or widely orbicular-obovate, obtuse, usually emarginate or rarely acute at apex, acute to cuneate or rarely somewhat obtuse at base, (1-)2-5.5(-8.5) cm long, 0.7- 2.5(-5) cm wide, smooth, midvein prominent below; stipules free; reddish or green, decidous or not, strigillose when young, becoming glabrous, subulate, ca. 1 mm long. Inflorescence (1-)2-4(-6)-flowered, a sessile or sub-sessile, strigillose to densely strigillose, umbel-like panicle 1.5-2(-2.5) cm long; common peduncle short or none, 0-5(-13) mm long, flowering peduncle (3-)4-7 mm long; bracts and bracteoles 1-1.5(-2) mm long; pedicels (6-)7-10(-12) mm long, ca. 2 times the length of the flowering peduncles; buds unkeeled, subglobose, 3-5 mm diam. Flowers (1-)1.3-1.7(-2) cm diam., sepals densely strigillose in bud and fruit, glands 7-10, posterior glands 1.5-2(-3) mm long, about 1/2 the length of the sepals, anterior glands smaller, 0.5-1(-1.5) mm long or rarely all glands equal in size, posterior petal (6.5-)7.5-9(-12) mm long, lateral petals 5-9 mm long; anterior petals (4-)5.5-6.5(-8.5) mm long; androecium zygomorphic; filaments 3-4 mm long; lateral filaments (and usually the anterior filament too) obviously thicker than the others, curved inwards at anthesis, usually as long as those opposite the sepals; lateral anthers 1.2-1.5 mm long, the others 0.5-1 mm long; pollination gap short, 0-0.5(-1) mm long; gynoecium zygomorphic; styles (Fig. 9E) truncate or rarely somewhat uncinate at apex, lateral styles (2.5-)3-3.5(-4) mm long, obviously thicker and 0.5-1 mm longer than the anterior, curved at the base, usually straight and ascending for the rest, anterior style straight. Fruit subglo- bose, depressed at the poles, 3-9-lobed, 1-3 cm diam., very fleshy; pyrenes ovoid, 0.7-1.5 cm long, 5-12 mm wide, the dorsal wing well developed, to 3.5 mm wide in cultivated plants, small and almost obsolete in wild populations; intermediate wings absent.
Habit shrub to small tree
Note Malpighia emarginata is known in Panama only as a cultivated plant. It is commonly called "Acerola" or "Grosella" (West Indian Cherry). In Panama the species flowers and fruits occasionally throughout the year. Malpighia emarginata is widely cultivated throughout the tropics for its fruit, which has a high content of vitamin C. It was long incorrectly called Malpighia punicifolia. It is recognized by its large, lobed fruits and its obovate leaves crowd- ed in short shoots.
Specimen COCLE: District of Pintada, Escobar 8 (PMA). LOS SANTOS: Pocri, Dwyer 2519 (MO). PANAMA: Panama City (probably cultivated), Tyson 4451 (MO).
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