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Published In: De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum. . . . 1: 73. 1788. (Fruct. Sem. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: M. QAISER
Flower/Fruit: Fl. Per.: Almost throughout the year.
Type: Type: "Flab. in Chinae, Indiae, persiae aquis".
Distribution: Distribution: Australia, S. E. Asia extending upto Iran and South Russia through Indian subcontinent.
Comment/Acknowledgements: The flowers are very large and showy and considered sacred by Hindus. Whole plant is holy to Budhists. The flowers and pedicels are used as a cardiac and hepatic tonic. The seeds are used for cutaneous diseases and also eaten raw. The rhizome is also eaten as a vegetable. The powder of the rhizome is used medicinally. Widely cultivated in Kashmir for its honey.
Map Location: B-8 Kashmir: Manasbal Lake, 5200 ft, common in lake, fit pale pink, Ludlow & Sherriff 7797 (BM); C-6 About 3 miles from Trimu head on way to Khoshab, M. Qaiser 2587 (KUH); C-7 Gujrat dirt. Kotian, Sarai Alamgir, 18.8.1966, Saida Qureshi s.n. (KUH); F-5 Sukkur Dist: c. 3 miles from Rohri on way to Rahim Yar Khan, M. Qaiser & S. Omer 7536 (KUH); 30 miles from Sukkur on way to Dherki, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 2120 (KUH); 30 miles from Sukkur on way to Pannu Aaqil, M. Qaiser & S. Omer 7555 (KUH); Larkana Dist.: About 54 miles from Larkana on way to Dadu, S. A. Faruqi & M. Qaiser 2220 (KUH); G-5 Thatta Dist. Between Mirpur Bathoro & Sajjawal, M. Qaiser & S. Omer 7521 (KUH); Haleji Lake, M. Qaiser 4279 (KUH).


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Leaves 10-45 (-60) cm in diameter, reniform to orbicular, glaucous with waxy coating on the upper surface, entire, petiole 50-150 cm long, usually with scattered ± hooked spines; stipules sheathing. Flowers (10-) 15-20 cm across, pinkish red or white, peduncle almost equalling the petiole, usually beset with hooked spines. Outer tepals (perianth lobes 4), persistent, 15-30 x 20-25 mm, ovate, entire, acute; inner tepals (series of 10-16 lobes), 70-100 x 35-45 mm, elliptic, distinctly parallel veined. Stamens c. 25 mm long, anthers 12-15 mm long with a conspicuous fleshy c. 5 mm long appendage. Flowering receptacle 20-25 x 18-22 mm, broad at the top. Carpels c. 10 mm long, fruiting receptacle 40-50 x 45-60 mm. Nuts 10-13 x 6-7 mm, oblong, dark brown to blackish.
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