Home Flora Palaestina
Home Page
Name Search
Family List
Generic List
Species List
Pinus halepensis Mill. Search in The Plant ListSearch in IPNISearch in Australian Plant Name IndexSearch in NYBG Virtual HerbariumSearch in Muséum national d'Histoire naturelleSearch in Type Specimen Register of the U.S. National HerbariumSearch in Virtual Herbaria AustriaSearch in JSTOR Plant ScienceSearch in SEINetSearch in African Plants Database at Geneva Botanical GardenAfrican Plants, Senckenberg Photo GallerySearch in Flora do Brasil 2020Search in Reflora - Virtual HerbariumSearch in Living Collections Decrease font Increase font Restore font

Published In: The Gardeners Dictionary: eighth edition no. 8. 1768. (Gard. Dict. (ed. 8)) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/21/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 7/19/2018)

1. Pinus halepensis Mill., Gard. Dict. ed. 8: no. 8 (1768); Boiss., Fl. Orient. 5: 695 (1884). Type: Described from plants cultivated in Britain, Miller, t. 208, 1760 (BM). [Plate 22]

Common name: Aleppo Pine; אורן ירושלים.
Habitat: Hills and mountains, mostly on light-coloured calcareous Rendzina soils at 100-1,000 m. a.s.l. Colonizing artificial cliffs near newly constracted roads, in abandoned fields, in lands dominated by semi-shrubs and almost devoid of annuals (possibly due to allelopathy), and anywhere near pine plantations. Commonly has been used for afforestation. Coastal Galilee, Upper Galilee, Mt. Carmel, Samaria, Judean Mts. (feral?), Upper Jordan Valley (probably feral), Golan, Gilead, Ammon.
Area distribution: Mediterranean.
Notes:             Forms few natural forests and occurs in remnant stands in several districts of Mediterranean Palestine, e.g. Coastal Galilee, Mt. Carmel, Samaria and Gilead.

    Wood remains of this tree were found at over 30 sites, mainly from historical times, in Israel. Apparently, remains in Hellenistic to Roman-Byzantine sites had been imported [Liphschitz 2007]. In addition, 2 seeds were found submerged in a well at Early Neolithic Atlit-Yam (Carmel Coast) [Liphscitz 2007; Kislev, Hartmann & Galili 2004]. Single wood remains of pine (P. pinea?) were found at Hellenistic Gamla ( the Golan Heights), and one nut shell in a grave at Roman Ein Gedi (Dead Sea Valley) [Kislev 1988; Liphschitz 2007].

     Pinus halepensis is rather variable in growth rate and dimensions. It is considered a drought resistant tree, mycorrhizally associated with Boletus granulatus. It has been extensively and successfully planted as a timber tree. Dense stands are vulnerable to fires which, in turn, enhance germination.

    The Aleppo Pine is believed by some to be theהשמן  עץof the Bible (Is. xLI: 19 and elsewhere).


Export To PDF Export To Word

Tree (6-) 10-15 m, with diffuse crown and ascending somewhat whorled branches. Leaves 8(-15) cm, in pairs, slender, bright green, with marginal resin ducts. Staminate cones clustered in heads, ovoid to cylindrical. Ovulate (mature) cones 7-12 x 4-6 cm, solitary or 2-3 in a whorl, reflexed on thick peduncles, oblong or oblong-conical, reddish-brown, maturing 15-16 months after pollination; scales oblong, exposed part shining, flat, rhombic, transversely keeled, with small flattish umbo. Seeds 5-6 x 3 mm, oblong; wing 3-5 times as long as seed. Fl. March-April. Seed maturing July-August.

© 2021 Missouri Botanical Garden - 4344 Shaw Boulevard - Saint Louis, Missouri 63110