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Published In: Herbarium Britannicum 1: 47. 1769. (Herb. Brit.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/13/2022)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 9/11/2020)
Contributor Text: A. Ghafoor
Contributor Institution: Centre for Plant Conservation, University of Karachi – Pakistan
Synonym Text:

Sonchus oleraceus L. var. asper L., Sp. Pl. 1: 794. 1753; S. spinosus Lam., Fl. Franc. 2: 86. 1779; Sonchus oleraceus ssp. asper (L.) Ehrh. in Hannover. Mag. 18: 230. 1780; Sonchus glaber Thunb., Prod. Pl. Cap.: 139. 1800; Sonchus fallax Wallr., Annals Bot.: 98. 1815; S. eryngioides DC., Prodr. 7: 185. 1838;  Sonchus  asper var.  pinnatisectus  Lojac., Fl. Sicul. 2(1): 524. 1903; Sonchus viridis Zenari in Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., ser. 2 31: 14. 1924


Fl. Per.: Almost all around the year        Vern.: Garwa, Màchal; Rough Sow-thistle, Prickly sow-thistle


Type  Habitat in Europe (S. France). Herb. Burser VI: 14 (UPS).


Mediterranean region, Europe and Asia; introduced and naturalized  in Australia,  N. America.


A  wide spread, introduced  arable weed, very common from 200 to  2000 m, along roadsides, near irrigation canals, on almost bare ground as well as in orchards and cultivated fields.

The plant is pounded and the paste is applied to wounds and boils in Balochistan and hilly tracts of SW Punjab.

Map Location:

A-9 Lamayaru, Ladakh, Kashmir, 30-31 July 1933, Walter Koeltz 6245 (MICH); B-7 Abbottabad Dist.: Changala gully, c. 2400 m, 1.7.1934, Mahindar Nath 341 (RAW, KUH); Swat Dist.: Kartela, near Mingora, c. 30 cm tall, herb, heads yellow, 9.4.1970, S. I. Ali & S. A. Farooqi 1614 (KUH); ibid, Gulibagh c. 1200 m, cultivated field, heads yellow, 20.4.1971, M. A. Siddiqui & Y. Nasir 7403 (RAW, KUH); ibid, c. 82 km from Mansehra on way to Besham, ±  5 cm tall, heads yellow, 30.9.1989, S. I. Ali, W. Sugong, T. Ali & G. Ke 3137 (KUH); C-6 Peshawar Dist.: 1000 ft, 23.3.1940, M. Nath  s. n. (RAW, KUH); ibid, 2 miles from D. I. Khan on way to Bannu, c. 25 cm tall herb, creamish yellow ligules, 15.6.1970, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 1617 (KUH); C-7 Rawalpindi Dist.: Murree, heads yellow, 15.6.1959, S. I. Ali 631 (KUH); Jinnah Garden Sargodha, 50 cm tall, heads yellow, 30.4.1969, S. Abedin 2505 (KUH); C-7 Northern Punjab, Hassan Abdal, 32 road miles from Rawalpindi, 1927-28, F. G. Dickason s.n (MICH);  D-4 Quetta Dist.: Spin Karez, c. 15 km N. of Quetta, c. 80 cm tall, erect, 10.5.1984, S. Omer & A. Ghafoor 1334 (KUH); Quetta Dist.: Balochistan University Campus, Quetta, ± 40-50 cm tall, heads yellow, 8.7.1988, T. Ali & T. Ahmad 1253 (KUH); D-5 Loralai Dist.: c. 15 miles from Loralai on way to D. G. Khan, erect herb, 45 cm tall, yellow head, 23.6.1970, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor  1965 (KUH);  D-6 D. G. Khan Dist.:  D. G. Khan,  9.3.1956,  collector ignotus 1163 (KUH); D-8 Lahore Dist.: 3 miles from Bhai Pheroo on way to canal near Baghiana, 20.4.69, S. Abedin 2235 (KUH); F-3 Turbat Dist.: Hoshab, behind Rest House, 12 cm tall, heads yellow, 18.4.1969, S. Abedin 2092 (KUH);  Teejhaban, 12 miles form Hoshab on way to Turbat, 15 cm tall, heads yellow, 25.3.1971, S. Abedin & Abrar Hussain 6020 (KUH); ibid, Hoshab, palm garden, behind Rest House Hoshab, 25 cm tall, heads yellow, 2.4.1971, S. Abedin & Abrar Hussain 6561 (KUH); F-4 Dadu Dist.: 30 cm tall, near Manchar Lake, 23.1.1969, S. Abedin & S. A. Farooqi 383 (KUH); Khuzdar Dist.: prostrate herb, heads yellow, 9.9.1971, S. Abedin & Abrar Hussain 7203 (KUH); Larkana Dist.: c. 1 mile from Rohu jo Ato, on way to Thano Bulla Khan, Keerther Range, heads yellow, 25.3.1983, K. A. Malik, S. Omer and A. Wahid 2511 (KUH); G-2 Turbat Dist.: Turbat city, prostrate herb, heads yellow, 12.2.1969, S. Abedin, S. I. Ali & S. A. Farooqi 890-A (KUH); ibid, palm garden, Nasirabad, Turbat, 30 cm tall herb, heads yhellow, 26.3.71, S. Abedin & Abrar Hussain 6155 (KUH); ibid, 25 cm, 1.4.71, S. Abedin & Abrar Hussain 6542 (KUH); ibid, Turbat City, 50-60 cm, 25.9.1987, T. Ali, M. Qaiser & M. A. Khan 578 (KUH); G-4 Thatta Dist., Gharo, March 1957,  I. Z. Talat (KUH); ibid, Malir Dist.: cultivated field, Darsano Chano, 4.12.68, S. Abedin 7-A (KUH); ibid, near irrigation canal, Mancher Lake, Shah Hasan, 23.1.69, S. Abedin, S. A. Farooqi 3821 (KUH); Karachi Dist.: Botany Department, Karachi University Campus, heads yellow , 23.2.1986, Zeenat A. Razzak & Momin A. Razzak 105, 111 (KUH); Thatta Dist.: Manchar Lake, Shah Hasan, 45 cm, heads yellow, 23.1.69, S. Abedin  S. A. Farooqi  3844 (KUH); ibid, Ghulam Mohammad Barrage, 40 cm heads yellow, 22.6.1969, S. Abedin 3843 (KUH); Hyderabad Dist.: Khipro, 22.1.1970, S. Abedin, S. I. Ali & S. A. Farooqi 4303 (KUH); 4 miles from Chachro on way to Kunri, 10 cm tall, 31.1.1970, S. Abedin 4528 (KUH); ibid, c. 20 miles from Hyderabad on way to Nawab Shah, 17.5.1985, S. Omer & R. Yusuf 1950-B (KUH).


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Annual or biennial, usually glabrous, 0.1 – 1  m tall, erect, unbranched  or sparsely branched  herbs with hollow stem and shoots. Leaves much variable, basal and lower cauline obovate to oblanceolate or lanceolate or elliptic, (4-) 5 – 25 (-30) x 2 – 10 (-15) cm, simple to somewhat irregularly pinnatipartite to pinnatisect, spinulose or spinose-denticulate on margins, acute, acuinate or subobtuse at apices, petiolate;  upper leaves sessile, akin to lower,  but with basal auricles  clasping, appressed and rounded. Capitula many-flowered,  small, 1.5 – 2.5  cm across, on  up to 4 (-5) cm long  peduncles bearing gland-tipped hairs  on the upper part or glabrous, borne in corymb-shaped synflorescence. Involucre ± campanulate, 10 – 12 mm long at anthesis, basally glandulose or not, slightly enlarged in fruiting.  Phyllaries glabrous externally, sometimes glandulose, 35-45, outer ones narrowly lanceolate, inn phyllaries ovate to lanceolate,  10 – 12 x 1.5 – 2  mm  Receptacle accrescent in fruit and becoming indurated and pale. Florets with 5.5 – 6  mm long corolla tube and 4 – 5 mm long, yellow ligules. Cypselas chestnut-brown to buff, oblanceolate, 2 – 3  x 1 mm, strongly compressed, usually 3 or rarely 4-5-ribbed on each  smooth face, the thin wing-like margin serrulate, not rugose.  Pappus white, 6 – 9  mm long, ± deciduous.

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