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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 921. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/8/2022)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 2/26/2022)
Contributor Text: Abdul Ghafoor
Contributor Institution: Centre for Plant Conservation, University of Karachi – PAKISTAN

Fl. Per.: June–December                   Vern.: Pot Marigold, Common Marigold


Lectotype: “Habitat in Europae arvis”, Herb. Linn. 1035.4 (LINN).


Probably native to the Mediterranean region, widely cultivated as one of the most popular ornamentals throughout the world; it is a naturalised weed of orchards and roadsides in many parts of the world.


This species is highly variable in flower colour, shape and size of cypselas. It has been widely used as an ornamental and in medicine since times immemorial. Calendula officinalis L. and its cultivars have been traditionally used for the treatment of various skin tumors, chilblains dermatological lesions, warts, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders. It is used in cosmetics, and to colour butter, thicken soups.

Map Location:

G–4 Karachi University Campus, cultivated annual herb, 20 cm tall, rays yellow, Zamarrud & Sultanul Abedin 814, 815 (KUH); Karachi University Botanical Garden near guest house, cultivated herb, ca 25 cm tall, heads orange, Zamarrud & Sultanul Abedin 834–A (KUH).


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Erect to ascending, basally ± woody, annual to ± perennial herb, (20–) 25–50 (–60) cm tall, much–branched, densely glandular hairy. Leaves oblanceolate, narrowly obovate, oblong or ± spathulate, (3–) 5–10 (–15) cm long, (1–) 1.5–4.5 (–6) cm wide, basally attenuate, entire or repand–dentate, acute to obtuse. Capitula solitary, 2.5–5 (–8) cm across; peduncle 5–10 cm long. Phyllaries biseriate, lanceolate or oblong–lanceolate, (8–) 10–15 mm long, 3.5–4 mm wide, acute, glandular and simple–hairy. Ray florets usually more than 30, 2–3 (–4)–seriate; ligules narrowly oblanceolate, 2–3.5 cm long, 4 – 4.5 mm wide, apically 3–fid, pale yellow to golden orange. Disc florets 3–5 mm long, yellow to orange. Cypselas  polymorphic, all curved, with or without an outermost row of incurved, rarely patent fruits; outer cypselas 2–2.5 cm long, shortly beaked, alternating with cymbiform, much shorter cypselas; inner ones smaller, curved, wrinkled.

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