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Published In: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 98(2): 94. 1946. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/10/2022)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/27/2018)
Synonym Text: Herpestris monnieria (L.) Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 2: 366. 1819. nom.iIllegit.; Bot. Mag. 52: t. 2557. 1825; Dalz. & Gibson, Bomb. Fl. 178. 1861 ('as Herpestes monniera'); Boiss., Fl. Or. 4: 426. 1879 ('monniera'); Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 272. 1884 ('monniera'); Kashyap & Joshi, Lahore Distr. Fl. 186, f. 158. 1936; R. R. Stewart, Annot. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. Kashm. 646. 1972.
Flower/Fruit: Fl.Per.: Almost throughout the year.
Type: Neotype: “Habitat in America meridionali, Hallman.” RCN: 132. Icon: “Moniera minima repens, foliis subrotundis, floribus singularibus in Browne, Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamica: 269. t. 25. f3. 1756 (Cramer Dassaneyke & Fosberg, Revised Handb, Fl. Ceylon 3: 421. 1981; Jarvis, Order out of Chaos, 649. 700. 2007).
Distribution: Widespread in tropics and subtropics; introduced in Spain and Portugal.
Comment/Acknowledgements: A common plant forming dense masses in damp and marshy or muddy places, and by streams and irrigation canals, ascending to 1700 m. The whole plant is used as a medicinal herb, as a cure for epilepsy and insanity and as a nerve tonic. The therapeutic action is similar to strychnine, but less toxic; the active ingredient is the alkaloid, brahmine (cf. Sastri, Wealth of India, Raw Mat. 1: 143. 1948).
Map Location:

B-6 Khyber Agency, Skhu(?) Springs, Landi Kotal, Kohat, 1.11.1964, Bashir Ahmad Sumail 263 (K); Peshawar: Mattra, 1200 ft., 29.5.1908, H.A.Deane 120 (K); Barogh, 5000 ft., 18.8.1918, H.H.Rich 423 (K); ibid., 16.10.1916, H. H. Rich 423 (K) [423 must be some kind of Cat. No. and not a colll. no.]; B-6/C-6 Peshawar: Sewabi and race course gound, 5.11.1964, B. A. Suhail 276 (K); B-7 Hazara Distr., Kund, between Peshawar and Attock Bridge, 30.5.1965, J. Lamond 1623 (E); ibid., Rech.f. 30389 (W); B-9 Baltistan? Kanda, etc. (Kasuli), Nanak, July 1885, Drummond 26244 (K); Kasauli? Maina Kot, Inayat (W. Himalaya), Kheri D., April 1898 Duthie 22430a (K); C-7 Attock/Peshawar: 1 mile E. of Akara on Attock-Peshawar road, 1.5.1958, B.L.Burtt 598 (E); on the ascent from Pothenkop to Chumba between Nurpur and Chiran(?), banks of the Jhelum, 3000 ft., 21.5.1978, G. Watt 453 (E); Rawal, 6.12.1849, Fleming s.n. (E); Hussan, Rawalpindi, Oct. 1871, Aitchison 584 (K); Jhelum: Kalar Kahar, 16.8.1972, M.Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 4547 (KUH); Shahpur, 13.10.1902, Mulchaud (Hb. Drummond 14708, K); Campbellpur: Wah, Attock, 14.9.1953, R. R. Stewart 27068 (BM); C-8 Punjab, Jammu hills, 1000 ft, Hooker fil. & T. Thomson (K); Sialkot: banks of Chenab, Oct. 1846, T. Thomson (K); D-4 Quetta, c. 110 km S. of Quetta Mountain near valley, 1700 m, 20.7.1969, Andersen & Petersen 475 (E, K); D-5 Loralai: Patankot, Gurdaspur, Nanak, Mar. 1885, Hb. Drummond  1720 (K); Baluchistan: Hurnai, 6.4.1889, 3000 ft., Lace 3339 (E); D-6 Sargodha: Kanal, Salt Range, 26.12.1849, Fleming 108 (K); Dera Ismail Khan: island in river, 700 ft., 4.4.1908, H.A.Deane 30 (K); E-4 Mach, 32462, 6.5.1959, Jafri 2850 (KUH); F-5 Sind, Sanghar/ Sukkur Dists.: Bakhara Nursery Pond c. 4 km from Sanghar on way to Bakhar Lake, 15.4.1982, K. A. Malik & S. H. Naqvi 1959 (KUH); Rohri, Sukkur, 17.5.1985, S. Omer & R. Yusuf 1968 (KUH); G-4 Sind, Karachi: Khadeji Falls, 9.5.1964, S. I. Ali s.n.
KUH); Khadeji, c. 46 km E. of Karachi, 29.4.1967, J. Lamond 767 (E); along Lyari river, Bihar Colony and Mauripur side, 13.4.1955, Jafri 881 (KUH) & 878 (K, KUH); Thatta: Gharo, Karachi Dist. (sic), 16.5.1985, Saood Omer & Rizwan Yusuf 1925 (KUH); 6 miles from Jati on way to Sujawal, 14.4.1970, M. Qaiser, A. Raza & A.Husain 691 (KUH) (white fls., saline soil). Dhabeji, 20.6.1958, Jafri 2437 (KUH); along Haleji Lakes, Sultanul Abedin & M. Qaiser 9854 (KUH); Thatta, Banana garden of Chakh Haji Suleman Mallassim, 17.11.1974, A. Ghafoor & Z.L.Butt 874 (KUH); Bund Murad, Dhan, 8.5.1965, Asif Mohammed Khan s.n. (KUH); G-5 Dadu Dist. Kirthar National Park, 2 miles E. of wild life hut, Karchat, 31.1.1984, M. Qaiser, S. I. Ali & S. Omer 7149 (KUH).


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Stems to 60 cm long, procumbent, rooting at nodes and finally ascending, glabrous. Leaves sessile, spathulate to obcordate-cuneate, 6-25 x 2-10 mm, obtuse or rounded at apex, entire, decussate; veins (except midrib beneath) indistinct; lower surface gland-dotted. Pedicels to 15 mm long; bracteoles 2, situated just below flowers, linear-lanceolate, slightly unequal, 2-4.5 mm. Calyx lobes 5-7 mm, posterior ovate, others narrower. Corolla bluish to mauve or lilac with darker lines, 8-11 mm. Capsule ovate, acute, 5-8 mm.

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