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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/15/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/15/2013)
Species Brugmansia candida Pers.
PlaceOfPublication Syn. P1. 1: 216. 1805.
Note TYPE: Based on Datura arborea R. & P.-FIG. 2.
Synonym Datura arborea R. & P., Fl. Peru. 2: 15, tab. 127. 1799, non L., Sp. P1. 191. 1953, nec Lagerh., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20: 663. 1895. TYPE: Peru, Pavon s.n. (MO, lectotype; B-W, isolecto- type, not seen, IDC 7740 [7440 sic.] 293 II: 9 (herb. Willd.)). D. candida (Pers.) Safford, Jour. Washington Acad. Sci. 11: 182-3. 1921.
Description Shrub or tree to 5 m tall; twigs stout, green, puberulent with ascending hairs. Leaves ovate or elliptical to 25 cm long, the apex acute, the base rounded or obtuse, mostly dimidiate, puberulent on the lamina above and with scattered short hairs beneath; petioles 3-8 cm long, puberulent. Pedicels to 4 cm long, erect in bud, soon pendulous and becoming more slender during elongation. Flowers very large, calyx sparingly fine puberulent outside, inflated in bud, becoming + narrowly tubular and 10-12 cm long by anthesis, the apex mostly once cleft, spathaceous, the cleavage extending ca. 1/3 the way down the calyx; corolla white, sometimes with a greenish cast, 25-30 cm long, pendant, tubiform and flaring widely at the limb, the tube mostly filling the calyx tube, the limb sinuate lobed, ca. 15 cm across with five lanceolate teeth ca. 30 mm long, puberulent on the ribs outside, glabrous within; filaments inserted slightly below the middle of the corolla (level with the top of the calyx), 37-38 mm long, free, geniculate,
Habit Shrub or tree
Description pilose near the point of insertion, glabrous above, elevated and broadened below, anthers 22-23 mm long, narrowly elongate, slightly hastate basally and emarginate apically, at first coherent but ultimately separating, pilose on the sutures; ovary green, narrowly conical, 10-15 mm long, the style slender and broadening slightly above the anther tube, the stigma with 2 distinct but flattened, obtuse lobes ca. 4 mm long, stigmatic on their edges. Fruit (Ruiz & Pavon) a smooth, elliptical, indehiscent capsule, the two locules marked off by shallow, longitudinal de- pressions on the outside and the many seeds shaped like reniform wedges (not known from Panama).
Note This is the common "floripondio" of the Chiriqui mountain villages. It is one of the most frequent and striking plants in the region, used as a specimen tree and in hedges, as fence posts and sometimes forming thickets where it roots from trash.
Common floripondio
Distribution Brugmansia candida is not known outside of cultivation except for spon- taneously rooting plants in districts where it is cultivated. It is widespread in rural areas in tropical America and is cultivated in parts of the Old World. It may be native to Peru.
Note Of incidental interest are the fruit flies (Drosophila) which inhabit the corollas of this species. Flies gather within the corollas soon after they open. Occurring in the area proximal to the anthers, they do not seem to act in pollination. Fallen blossoms take several days to decompose and they often contain Drosophila-like larvae. It may be that these fruit flies complete their life cycle in association with Brugmansia candida. Dr. Hampton Carson, University of Hawaii, has stated (personal communication) that these species of Drosophila have been found only in association with Brugmansia.
Specimen CHIRIQUf: Cerro Punta, 6,500 ft, Blaisdell 355 (FSU). Alto Boquete along main road, cultivated, Correa 428 (MO, PMA). Near Bambito, roadside, Croat 10613 (SCZ). Nueva California, planted by fence, D'Arcy 4248 (MO.) Nueva Suisa, Volcan District, 5,700 ft, D'Arcy 5308 (MO, MPU). Cerro Horqueta, ca. 4,500-5,500 m, rain forest, Dwyer 8732 (MO). Bambito, 1 mi. SW Cerro Punta, 5,600 ft, ornamental, Tyson 5754 (BISH, FSU, MO). PANAMA: Without locality, Halsted, 1850 (NY).
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