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grape, wine grape
Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae)
General description:
Grapes are one of about 60 species in the genus Vitis. Grape species are native to North America, Europe and northern Asia. One species, Vitis vinifera, is widely cultivated in temperate regions around the world. Vitis vinifera is native to Europe and southwestern Asia. Grape plants are perennial woody vines that produce tendrils to climb on surrounding vegetation. Leaves are often lobed. Fruits (technically berries) are born in large clusters, and are typically reddish-purple to black, or green to yellow in some domesticated varieties. Fruits of domesticated grapes are 8-25 mm in diameter; those of wild species are usually somewhat smaller, but can approach the size of domesticated grapes. The fruits of all grape species are edible, but some wild species are generally regarded as unpalatable.
History, uses and importance:
Vitis vinifera was domesticated perhaps 6000-8000 years ago in Western Asia. Archeological evidence shows that grapes were being used to make wine in the same timeframe. Domesticated grapes were spread across Europe and Asia prehistorically and were introduced to Australia and the Americas during the Age of Discovery (17th and 18th centuries). Wine-making accounts for the majority of grape production, and there are hundreds of cultivated varieties used to make wine. Grapes are also eaten fresh, or dried to make raisins. Grape seeds produce an edible oil. Grape leaves are also edible and are used in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisines. Grape vines can be woven to make baskets or similar items. Grapes are also used to make unfermented juice which may be further processed to make jelly; cultivated varieties of the American Concord grape species (Vitis labrusca) are particularly valued for this purpose.
In the mid-19th century, an aphid known as phylloxera was accidentally introduced from North America to Europe and devastated European vineyards. Efforts to restore the European wine industry took two approaches. One was hybridizing Vitis vinifera with various North American grape species (chiefly Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia) that were resistant to phylloxera. The other was grafting Vitis vinifera onto rootstocks of resistant American species. Modern grape production in regions with phylloxera present typically involves grafting clonal cuttings onto resistant rootstocks, but some hybrid grapes are used.
In 2014, grapes were grown on slightly more than 400,000 hectares in the United States and for a production of 7 million metric tons of grapes. Globally, grapes were grown on 7.1 million acres and produced 74 million metric tons. Wine production for the United States in 2014 was 3.3 million metric tons, and 29 million metric tons globally. Globally, wine production is worth more than $34 billion per year.
General References:
Overview of grape production
Viticultural Resources at UC Davis
Grapes & Vineyards (Washington State University)
Comprehensive museum links:
Artefacts Canada, Wine
Artefacts Canada, Grapevine
Artefacts Canada, Raisin
Artefacts Canada, ?Botanical? Grape
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Annotated Checklist of Cultivated Plants of Hawai?i, Grape
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Hawaiian Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants Checklist, Vitis A-176
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Taxonomic Search, Search in Genus Vitis
National Museum of Ireland, Historical Collections, Search ?Grape?
The British Museum, Grape
The British Museum, Grapevine
The British Museum, Wine
The British Museum, Raisin
The Brooklyn Museum, Grape
The Chicago Field Museum, Botany Department, Search Vitis
The Chicago Field Museum, Neotropical Herbarium Specimens, Vitis
The Chicago Field Museum, Botany Detailed Search, Search Vitis
The Chicago Field Museum, Berlin Negatives, Search Vitis
The Field Museum, Anthropology Collections, Search Grape
The Chicago Field Museum, Anthropology Collections, Search wine
The Chicago Field Museum, Anthropology Collections, Search Grapevine
The Chicago Field Museum, vTypes Collection Database, Search in ?Scientific Name? Vitis
The Chicago Field Museum, Economic Botany, Search Vitis
HELSINGIN YLIOPISTOMUSEO, viiniryp?le (grape)
HELSINGIN YLIOPISTOMUSEO, viini (wine)
HELSINGIN YLIOPISTOMUSEO, rusina (raisin)
HELSINGIN YLIOPISTOMUSEO, greippimehu (grape juice)
HELSINGIN YLIOPISTOMUSEO, puskaradio (grapevine)
HELSINGIN YLIOPISTOMUSEO, herukka (currant)
HELSINGIN YLIOPISTOMUSEO, ryp?leen lehdet (grape leaves)
HELSINGIN YLIOPISTOMUSEO, Resveratrol (Natural Phenol/phytoalexin/stilbenoid from grape skins for injuries and fungus attacks on plants)
Museum of Fine Arts, Georgian National Museum, Contemporary Georgian Art, Wine Ascent
Museum of Fine Arts, Georgian National Museum, Oriental Arts Collection, Lovers (with what looks like wine in glasses)
Museum of Fine Arts, Georgian National Museum, Oriental Arts Collection, Still Life (with grapes)
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Archaeology Collections, Goblet
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Archaeology Collections, Rhyton
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Archaeology Collections, Rhyton
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Archaeology Collections, Rhyton
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, Azarfesha (for the wine)
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, Chinchila (vessel for wine)
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, Gozauri (vessel for wine)
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, Gozauri (vessel for wine)
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, Horn (for the wine)
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, Jug (ritual vessel for drinking wine)
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, Kharkhara (vessel for wine)
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, ?Marani? ritual vessel for drinking wine
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, Ram ritual vessel for drinking wine
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Middle Ages Art, Amphorae
Museum of Georgia, Georgian National Museum, Middle Ages Art, Marani (Location for Storing Wine)
The National Gallery, Georgian National Museum, Ceramics, Marani (Location for storing wine)
Open Air Museum of Ethnography, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, Goblet
Open Air Museum of Ethnography, Georgian National Museum, Ethnography Collections, Gozauri (vessel for wine)
Penobscot Marine Museum, Grape
Penobscot Marine Museum, Wine, (Object Name)
Penobscot Marine Museum, Wine (Description)
Rijksmuseum, Rijksstudio, Grape
Rijksmuseum, Rijksstudio, Grapevine
Rijksmuseum, Rijksstudio, Wine
U. Japaridze House-Museum, Georgian National Museum, Painting Collections, At the Table
Natural history museum links:
American Museum of Natural History, Anthropology Collections, Search Grape, Wine (Object Types, ALL Collections)
American Museum of Natural History, Anthropology Collections, Material Search, Flail (Grape Root)
American Museum of Natural History, Anthropology Collections, Material Search, Women?s Loin Cloth (Wine)
American Museum of Natural History, Anthropology Collections, Object Type Search, Raisin Samples, in Jar
The Bakken, Minnesota, Wine
National Czech & Slovak Museum and Library, Grape
National Czech & Slovak Museum and Library, Wine
National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan, Global Red List of Japanese Threatened Plants, Vitis
National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan, Living Vascular Plants, Vitis
National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan, Natural History Collection Database, Vitis
National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan, Type Specimen Database, Vitis
National Museum of Nature and Science, Japan, Vascular Plants (Specimens), Vitis
Natural History Museum, London, Botany Collection, Vitis
Natural History Museum, London, Library and Archives, Vitis
Natural History Museum, London, Library and Archives, Grape
Natural History Museum, London, Library and Archives, Grapevine
Natural History Museum, London, Library and Archives, Wine
Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County, Anthropology Collections Database, Search in ?Keyword? Grape/Wine
Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County, Seaver Center Collection, Search in ?Keyword? Grape/Wine/Grapevine
Natural History Museum of Utah, Rio Tinto Center, University of Utah, Anthropology Collections, Grape
Natural History Museum of Utah, Rio Tinto Center, University of Utah, Anthropology Collections, Search Wine
Natural History Museum of Utah, Rio Tinto Center, University of Utah, Intermountain Region Herbarium Network, Vitis
Orange County Agricultural and Nikkei Heritage Museum, Fullerton Arboretum, Plant Map
Science Museum of Minnesota, Grape
Skala Bartizal Library: National Czech & Slovak Museum and Library, Wine
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: Anthropology Department Collections, Type ?Grape? and ?Grapes? and ?Wine? and ?grapevine? into ?Keyword Search?
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: Department of Botany Collections, Choose the Family ?Vitaceae? with ?Vitis rotundifolia Michx? in ?Taxonomic Name? into ?Genetic Samples?
History museum links:
The Autry Museum of the American West, Grape
The Autry Museum of the American West, Wine
The Autry Museum of the American West, Raisin
The Autry Museum of the American West, Grapevine
Chicago History Museum, Images, Grape
Chicago History Museum, Research Center, History Fair, Grape
Chicago History Museum, Research Center, History Fair, Wine
National History Museum, Los Angeles County, Grape/Wine
The National Museum of American History, Grape
The National Museum of American History, Wine
The National Museum of American History, Grapevine
Minnesota Historical Society, Grape
Minnesota Historical Society, Grapevine
Minnesota Historical Society, Wine
Missouri History Museum/Missouri Historical Society, Wine
Missouri History Museum/Missouri Historical Society, Grapevine
Missouri History Museum/Missouri Historical Society, Grape
Victoria and Albert Museum, Grape
Victoria and Albert Museum, Wine
Victoria and Albert Museum, Grapevine
Victoria and Albert Museum, Raisin
Wisconsin Historical Museum, Grape
Wisconsin Historical Museum, Wine
Art museum links:
The Bates College Museum of Art, Search Grape
The Bates College Museum of Art, Two Seated Men with Drinks
Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Grape
Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Wine
British Council: Visual Arts, Grape
British Council: Visual Arts, Wine
Colby Museum of Art, Grape
Colby Museum of Art, Wine
Farnsworth Art Museum, Bois du Vin
FIGGE Art Museum, Grape
FIGGE Art Museum, Wine
Georgia Museum of Art, Collections, Grape
Georgia Museum of Art, Collections, Wine
Goldstein Museum of Design, Grape
Goldstein Museum of Design, Wine
The Hammer, Los Angeles, Grape
The Hammer, Los Angeles, Wine
The Hammer, Los Angeles, Grapevine
High Museum of Art (Georgia), Collections, Grape
High Museum of Art (Georgia), Collections, Wine
High Museum of Art (Georgia), European Art, “Erigone”
High Museum of Art (Georgia), European Art, “La Bacchante aux Raisins”
Images D’art Database, Grape
Images D’art Database, Wine
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grape
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Grapevine
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Wine
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Grape
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Grapevine
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Wine
Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Grape
Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Grapevine
Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Wine
The Minnesota Museum of American Art, “The Tillers”
The Minnesota Museum of American Art, “Untitled (Cap d’Antibes)”
M.K. Ciurlionis National Museum of Art (Lithuania), Wine
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Grape
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Wine
Philadelphia Museum of Art, Grapevine
Portland Museum of Art, Search Grape/Wine/Grapevine/Jar/Jelly
Portland Art Museum, Grape
Portland Art Museum, Wine
Portland Museum of Art (Maine), Search Grape
St. Louis Art Museum, Grape
Svent István Király Múzeum, Grape
Tate, UK, Grape
Tate, UK, Wine
Tate, UK, Wine Press
UIMA: University of Iowa Museum of Art, Nature’s Bounty
UK National Portrait Gallery, Grapes
UK National Portrait Gallery, Wine
UK National Portrait Gallery, Grape
UK National Portrait Gallery, Wine
UK National Portrait Gallery, Wine
UK National Portrait Gallery, Mulled Wine
University of Maine Museum of Art, Marchand du Vin,
Anthropology museum links:
American Swedish Institute, Grape
American Swedish Institute, Wine
The Basque Museum and Cultural Center, Idaho, Wine
National Museum of the American Indian, Wild Grapevine
Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, UK, Grape (objects)
Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, UK, Grape (photographs)
The Spurlock Museum of World Cultures at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Grape
The Spurlock Museum of World Cultures at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Wine
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Preußischer Kulturbesitz: Ethnologisches Museum, Grape
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Preußischer Kulturbesitz: Ethnologisches Museum, Wine
Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Preußischer Kulturbesitz: Ethnologisches Museum, Grapevine
UBC Museum of Anthropology, Grape
UBC Museum of Anthropology, Wine
UBC Museum of Anthropology, Jam
UBC Museum of Anthropology, Jelly
UBC Museum of Anthropology, Raisin
Library links:
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority: Transportation Research Library & Archives, Grape
Missouri Botanical Garden Peter H. Raven Library, Grape
Missouri Botanical Garden Peter H. Raven Library, Vitis
Missouri Botanical Garden Peter H. Rave Library, Wine
New Orleans Public Library (Partners with NATFAB; National Food and Beverage Foundation), Grape
New Orleans Public Library (Partners with NATFAB; National Food and Beverage Foundation), Grapevine
New Orleans Public Library (Partners with NATFAB; National Food and Beverage Foundation), Wine
Simon Fraser University Library, Grape
Simon Fraser University Library, Wine
Simon Fraser University Library, Raisin
Simon Fraser University Library, Grapeseed
UC San Diego (Library), Grape
UC San Diego (Library), Wine
UC San Diego (Library), Grapevine
Floristic and taxonomic links:
FloraBase (Vitis)
FloraBase (Vitis vinifera)
Flora of China (Vitis)
Flora of China (Vitis vinifera)
Flora of North America (Vitis vinifera)
GRIN (Vitis)
GRIN taxonomy (Vitis vinifera)
IPNI (Vitis)
IPNI (Vitis vinifera)
Kew electronic Plant Information Centre (Vitis vinifera)
NBN Atlas (Vitis)
Plants of the World Online(Vitis)
Plants of the World Online (Vitis vinifera)
USDA Plants (Vitis)
USDA PLANTS (Vitis vinifera)
Herbarium links:
GBIF (Vitis)
GBIF (Vitis vinifera)
JSTOR (Vitis vinifera)
Living collections and germplasm links:
USDA Germplasm
DNA and genetics links:
NCBI (Vitis)
NCBI (Vitis vinifera)
Grape genome browser
Specialized database links:
Encyclopedia of Life (Vitis)
Encyclopedia of Life (Vitis vinifera)
EPPO (Vitis plant pathogens)
EPPO (Vitis vinifera plant pathogens)
Historical Plant Use Database (Vitis)
iNaturalist (Vitis)
iNaturalist (Vitis vinifera)
Native American Ethnobotany Database (Vitis)
Plants for a Future (Vitis vinifera)
Purdue University Center for New Crops & Plant Products (Vitis vinifera)
Vitis International Variety Catalogue
 
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