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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 387. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Flower/Fruit: Fl.Per.: Almost throughout the year.
Type: Type: Described from South Europe.
Distribution: Distribution: Tropical and subtropical countries in Asia, Africa, S. Europe, North Australia and introduced in new world tropics.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Common throughout Pakistan from sea level to 3500 m, in sandy soils of barren lands and cultivated fields as a weed.

A highly variable species in leaf and flower size and fruit characters. Many authors recognize subspecies and varieties on the basis of presence or absence of spines, tubercles and indumentum on the dorsal side of mericarps but these characters do not seem constant and correlated and I prefer to recognize one variable species without any formal infra-specific taxa.

The plant is used as a diuretic, demulcent, tonic, aphrodisiac and aperient. The fruit is used in painful micturition, urinary diseases, impotence, cough and heart diseases.

Map Location: A-8 Hunza, 8000 ft., F. Schmid s.n. 10.6.1964 (RAW); B-6 Chitral Dist.: 10 miles from Chitral on way to Boonjee, in Maize field, sandy clay soil, Sultanul Abedin 8017 (KUH) ; Dir Dist.: 12 miles from Dir on way to Drosh, rocky hills with sand, Sultanul Abedin 7909 (KUH); Swat Dist.: Between Khawaja Khela and Shangla, Sultanul Abedin 8295 (KUH); B-7 Hazara Dist.: c. 25 miles from Farm on way to Babusar, S. Abedin & M. Qaiser 9111 (KUH); Muzaffarabad Dist.: Village Sanwar, near Dulai, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 4959 (KUH) ; B-8 Baltistan Dist.: Skardu, 8000 ft., R.R. Stewart 20382 (RAW); B-9 Baltit, Oasis Jardines, 2600 m, F. Schmid 1923 (RAW); C-7 Jhelum Dist.: Village Mustafabad, near Choa Saidan Shah, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 4561 (KUH); Sargodha Dist.: Uchali, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 4501 (KUH) ; Rawalpindi Dist.: Ayub Park, M.A. Siddiqi 1576 (KUH); Between Rawalpindi and Kahuta, Sultanul Abedin & M. Qaiser 8583 (KUH) ; Ayub Park, M.A. Siddiqi 1576 (RAW); Jhelum Dist.: About 30 miles from Jhelum on way to Rawalpindi, M. Qaiser 3521 (KUH) ; D-4 Quetta, 5600 ft., J.H. Lace 3888 (E; KUH); D-6 Multan Dist.: 40 miles from Multan on way to Lahore, M. Qaiser 3596 (KUH); D-8 Lahore Dist.: Between Changa Manga and Chunyan, S. Abedin 7549 (KUH); E-5 D.G. Khan Dist.: near Rajanpur in cult. field, S. Abedin & Abrar Hussain 9585 (KUH); Sibi Dist.: Khost, M.A. Siddiqi & Y. Nasir 3506 (RAW); F-2 Makran Dist.: Between Gishkor and Hushab, Qaiser 801 (KUH); F-5 Khairpur Dist.: Kot Diji, S.M.H. Jafri 1153 (KUH); Sanghar, S. Abedin 4014 (KUH); G-2 Makran Dist.: 10 miles from Pasni on way to Gwadar, A. Ghafoor & M. Qaiser 184 (KUH); Between Mund and Turbat, S.I. Ali, S.A. Faroogi & S. Abedin 1024 (KUH); About 20 miles from Mund on way to Suntsar, A. Ghafoor & M. Qaiser 260 (KUH); G-4 Karachi Dist. Manghopir, M. Qaiser et at 483 (KUH); Karachi University Campus, Sultanul Abedin 1406 (KUH); Dadu Dist.: 4 miles from Thana Bulla Khan, stony ground, S.M.H. Jafri 3686 (KUH); Thatta Dist.: Kalri Lake, dry rocky ground, A. Jalis s.n. 10.11.1959 (KUH); G-5 Thar Parker Dist.: Diplo and between Diplo & Naokot, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 3836; 3928; 3857; 3774 (KUH); Between Mithi and Nagar Parker, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 3719; 1796; 4085 (KUH).


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Annual or biennial, prostrate, densely appressed whitish silky pubescent herb. Stem hirsute to sericeous, branches spreading. Leaves paripinnate, 2.5-5 cm long; stipules lanceolate to falcate, 3-5 mm long; leaflets (4-) 5-6(-8) pairs ovate to elliptic-oblong, 5-10(-12) mm long, 3-8 mm broad, inequilateral, acute. Flowers yellow, 1-1.5 cm across; pedical up to 1.5(-2) cm long. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, 5-6 mm long, c. 3 mm broad, acute. Petals obovate, 6-8 mm long, 3-4 mm broad, obtuse. Stamens 10, filaments c. 3-5 mm long, anthers versatile. Ovary ovoid, hirsute; style c. 1.5 mm long, stigmas decurrent. Fruit up to c. 1 cm in diameter, 4-8 mm long, mericarps densely crested and tuberculate on dorsal side, densely hairy to glabrescent, with 2 long patent and 2 short downwardly directed spines (rarely all or lower 2 reduced to tubercles).
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