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Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum, Supplementum Primum 2: 115, pl. 76. 1816. (Sp. Musc. Frond., Suppl. 1) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

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Bryum billarderi is a common Central American Bryum recognized by its large size, rosulate habit, and distinctly bordered leaves. It commonly has clusters of reddish brown, papillose filaments in the upper leaf axils. Mohamed (1979) separated Central American material from B. billarderi (as B. andicola Hook. in Kunth) on the basis of its smaller size, leaves that are more obovate and strongly twisted around the stem when dry, presence of axillary filamentous gemmae, shorter costae, and more strongly differentiated leaf border. Ochi (1981, 1994) as well as Koponen and Norris (1984) consider B. billarderi and B. andicola synonymous. Central American collections of this species are variable in all the above features. Plants with filamentous axillary gemmae are apparently not restricted to the  Neotropics since Koponen and Norris (1984) have reported filamentous axillary gemmae in New Guinean material of B. billarderi.

Ochi (1994) cited the presence of single setae in Bryum billarderi as one feature separating it from the genus Rhodobryum, which often has multiple setae. Mohamed (1979), however, gives the setae of B. billarderi as commonly plurisetose, and some Central American collections (e.g., Crosby 3914, MO) have multiple setae.

There are four other strongly rosulate Bryum species in Central America: B. canariense, B. leptotorquescens, B. richardsii, and B. huillenseBryum canariense differs from B. billarderi in having a scarcely differentiated upper leaf border and short, thick‑walled leaf cells. Bryum richardsii and B. leptotorquescens differ from it in having distinctly decurrent leaves. Bryum huillense is very similar to B. billarderi and both have identically shaped axillary filaments. Bryum huillense is a larger plant than B. billarderi (leaves 5–7 vs 2–6 mm long), has a better developed leaf limbidium, and 2-3 storied rosettes.

Schwaegrichen gave the type locality of B. billarderi as "Novo Belgio" which has been interpreted as Tasmania (Ochi 1980). LaBillardière, the type collector, never used the name "Novo Belgio" in his expedition account (1799). In his treatment of the Australian plants collected during the expedition, LaBillardière (1804) cited two localities: "in terrâ scilicet Van‑Leuwin" (Esperance Bay, Western Australia) and "in capite Van‑Diemen" (Storm Bay, Tasmania). Since this species is found in both regions of Australia the exact type locality remains unknown. This species is sometimes spelled “billardieri” in contradiction to Schwaegrichen’s (1816) original spelling of the name. Schwaegrichen’s spelling does not appear to be an orthographic error since he used the form “billarderi” in the original description and on the illustration plate while at the same time giving the collector as “Billardiere.”

Illustrations: Schwaegrichen (1816, Pl. 76); Bartram (1933, Fig. 88, as B. decaisnei); Bartram (1939, Pl. 11 176, as B. ramosum); Andrews (1940, Pl. 91 A); Bartram (1949, Fig. 79 E–H); Ochi (1970, Figs. 35–37); Gangulee (1974, Figs. 471–473); Scott and Stone (1976, Pl. 51); Mohamed (1979, Figs. 9 & 10); Catcheside (1980, Fig. 151); Ochi (1980, Fig. 49); Koponen and Norris (1984, Fig. 7 a–e); Noguchi (1988, Fig. 211 B); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 366); Churchill and Linares (1995, Fig. 24 a–d as B. andicola). Figure 138 E–H.
Habitat: On tree trunks, branches, or roots, rotting and decorticated logs, terrestrial on soil banks and over rocks; 450–3333 m.
Distribution in Central America: BELIZE. Cayo: Allen 18225 (BRH, MO); Toledo: Allen 19067 (BRH, MO). GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Croat 41767 (MO); Chimaltenango: Standley 80323 (F); Chiquimula: Steyermark 30592 (F); El Progreso: Steyermark 43698 (F); Jalapa: Standley 76571 (F, MO, NY); Jutiapa: Standley 76320 (F); Huehuetenango: Standley 82553 (F, NY); Quezaltenango: Sharp 1945 (MO); Sacatepéquez: Standley 63077 (F); Santa Rosa: Standley 78097 (F, NY); Suchitepéquez: Steyermark 46712 (F); Totonicapán: Standley 83103 (F, NY); Zacapa: Steyermark 42640 (F). EL SALVADOR. Chalatenango: Sipman et al. 37632 (NY); Santa Ana: Watson ES‑0026 (MO). HONDURAS. Atlántida: Standley 55648 (F, NY); Comayagua: Allen 12313A (MO, TEFH); Cortés: Allen 14224 (MO, TEFH); El Paraíso: Rodriguez 1815 (F, MO); Francisco Morazán: D'Arcy 6860 (MO); Intibucá: Standley 25380 (F); Lempira: Allen 11946 (MO, TEFH); Ocotepeque: Allen 14423 (MO, TEFH). NICARAGUA. Madriz: Stevens &  Grijalva 16435A (MO); Matagalpa: Almedo 1453c (MO). COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Crosby 3774 (MO); Cartago: Croat 35420 (MO); Heredia: Lemmon 95 (MO); Limón: Davidse et al. 26165 (MO, NY); Puntarenas: Davidse et al. 28525 (MO); San José: Crosby 10887 (MO). PANAMA. Chiriquí: Allen 9094 (MO, NY, PMA); Veraguas: Nee & Mori 5364 (MO, PMA).
World Range: Southwestern and South‑Central U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Western, Northern, and Southern South America, Brazil; Subantarctic Islands; West, West‑Central, East, and South Tropical Africa, Southern Africa, West Indian Ocean; China, Eastern Asia; Indian Subcontinent, Indo‑China, Malesia; Australia, New Zealand; Southwestern, North‑Central, and South‑Central Pacific.


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Bryum billarderi Schwaegr., Sp. Musc. Frond., Suppl. 1(2): 115. 1816.

Rosulabryum billarderi (Schwaegr.) Spence, Bryologist 99: 223. 1996. Protologue: Australia (?). Legit in Novo Belgio Billardiere, australium terrarum investigator celeberrimus.

Bryum andicola Hook. in Kunth, Syn. Pl. 1: 58. 1822. Rhodobryum andicola (Hook.) Par., Index Bryol. Suppl. 1114. 1898. Protologue: Mexico. Crescit in frigidis Toluccae et Islahuacae, alt. 1330 hex. (Regno Mexicano).

Bryum comatum Besch., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 199. 1872. Protologue: Mexico. In sylva della Desierta Vieja, e valle Mexicensi, Bourg.[eau] nov. 1865, no 1357, pro parte.

Bryum liebmannii Schimp. ex Besch., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 200. 1872. Protologue: Mexico. Mirador, Liebmann in herb. Schimper.

Bryum sartorii Schimp. ex Besch., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 200. 1872. Protologue: Mexico. Mirador, Liebmann in herb. Schimp.

Bryum streptorhodon C. Müll., Bull. Herb. Boissier 5: 179. 1897. Protologue: Guatemala. Coban, 4400 ped. alt., Febr. 1886: v. Türckheim Brotherus mis. 1891; Alta Vera Paz, Pansanakam Dec. 1887: v. Türckheim sterile legit. Hb. Levier. 

            Plants medium-sized to robust, shiny, dark-green to yellowish green, in dense rosulate tufts, 15–25(–50) mm high; rhizoids papillose, forming brownish red tomentum at base. Lower leaves small, distant, appressed to stem, upper comal leaves 2–6 mm long, spirally twisted around stems when dry, erect‑spreading when wet, oblong to broadly spathulate; apices mucronate to cuspidate; margins yellow, recurved in lower _, distinctly bordered by 2–6 rows of narrow, thick‑walled, linear cells, serrulate to serrate; costae shortly excurrent; upper cells rhomboidal‑hexagonal, thin‑walled, sometimes porose, 40‑80 μm long, basal cells broadly rectangular, thin‑walled, lax, 40–100 μm. Asexual reproduction by papillose, reddish brown, axillary filaments or red to reddish brown tubers. Dioicous. Perigonia in large terminal clusters. Setae single or multiple, to 15–35 mm long, reddish brown. Capsules 4–6 mm long, light‑brown, ovoid‑pyriform to oblong‑cylindrical, symmetrical, horizontal to pendent, with well‑developed neck; opercula 0.5 mm long, conic apiculate; annuli compound and revoluble; exostome teeth brown to reddish yellow at base, yellow above, densely and evenly papillose, endostome pale yellow, lightly papillose, basal membrane to _ of exostome teeth length, segments well-developed, broadly perforate, cilia 2‑5, appendiculate. Spores 12–16 μm, lightly roughened. Calyptra not seen.



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