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Published In: Bryologia Universa 1: 855. 1827. (Bryol. Univ.) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

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Bryum densifolium is a robust species with usually long, narrow, well‑spaced, decurrent leaves. Occasionally, however, it can have broadly oblong, closely spaced leaves that are spirally twisted when dry. Distinctive features of the species include its firm‑walled, porose leaf cells, and weakly revolute, sharply serrate to denticulate leaf margins (the teeth often paired) that are distinctly bordered by several rows of long, narrow, often porose cells. As noted by Ochi (1967a) the species is variable in plant size, leaf‑arrangement and the size and shape of its leaves.

Despite its smaller size, Ochi (1981, 1994) synonymized B. geminidens with B. procerum because both had decurrent leaves with sporadically double-toothed margins. These features are also present in B. densifolium and this species is the same size as B. geminidens. Furthermore, B. geminidens and B. procerum have different costal morphologies. Bryum procerum has a Rhodobryum‑type costa, i.e., with weak or absent dorsal stereids and several outer rows of enlarged, hyaline cells on the dorsal side. Bryum geminidens and B. densifolium have a Bryum‑type costa, i.e., with well-developed dorsal stereids. Bryum richardsii differs from B. densifolium in having a weakly rosulate leaf arrangement, single toothed margins, somewhat shorter leaf cells, and scale-leaved, flagellate branches in the upper leaf axils.

Illustrations: Brotherus (1904, Fig. 447); Brotherus (1924, Fig. 349 A–C); Bartram (1949, Fig. 80 D–F); Ochi (1967a, Figs. 29–30); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 364); Churchill and Linares (1995, Fig. 25 e–g). Figure 142.
Habitat: On soil, rocks, and boulders (limestone or non‑calcareous); 350–3160 m.
Distribution in Central America: GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Türckheim (NY); Huehuetenango: Sharp 5022 (F, MO, NY); San Marcos: Steyermark 35519 (F). HONDURAS. Comayagua: Crosby 2797 (MO); Francisco Morazán: Olson 83‑12 (MO, NY). NICARAGUA. Jinotega: Flores et al. 42 (MO); Madriz: Stevens 16140 (HNMN, MO). COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: Davidse et al. 23863 (CR, MO); San José: Crosby & Crosby 6090 (CR, MO). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Allen 5258 (MO, PMA); Chiriquí: Croat 67850 (MO, PMA); Veraguas: Crosby 10114 (MO, PMA).
World Range: Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Western, Northern, and Southern South America, Brazil; Australia (Streimann & Touw 1981).


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Bryum densifolium Brid., Bryol. Univ. 1: 855. 1827.

Protologue: South America. Inter muscos Americanos in Andibus lectos neglectam sterilemque invenimus. 

Bryum pergracilescens C. Müll., Bull. Herb. Boissier 5: 184. 1897. Protologue: Guatemala. Coban, 4400 ped. alt., Dec. 1885: H. v. Türckheim in Hb. Brotheri (NY).

Bryum geminidens Bartr., Bryologist 49: 115. 1946. Protologue: Guatemala. Dept. San Marcos: between San Sebastián and summit of Volcán Tajumulco, alt. 3800–4600 m., among rocks on top of ridge leading to rocky dome, Steyermark 35519 (F). 

Plants large to robust, shiny, green to yellowish green, in tufts 20–70 mm high; rhizoids papillose forming a dense brownish red tomentum. Leaves 3–6 mm long, more or less distantly but evenly spaced, erect, flexuose to loosely twisted when dry, spreading when wet, oblong, oblong‑lanceolate to lanceolate; apices long‑acuminate; margins revolute in lower ½, distinctly bordered by 2–3 rows of narrow, thick‑walled, often porose, linear cells, sharply serrate to denticulate, teeth often paired; costae shortly excurrent; upper cells rhomboidal‑hexagonal, firm‑walled, porose, 30–80 μm long, basal cells broadly rectangular, lax or firm‑walled, porose, 40–90 μm. Dioicous. Setae single 30–40 mm long, reddish brown. Capsules 5–7 mm long, light‑brown, narrowly cylindrical, symmetrical, suberect, horizontal or pendulous, neck well‑developed; opercula 0.5–1 mm long, conic apiculate; annuli compound and revoluble; exostome teeth brown to reddish yellow at base, yellow above, densely and evenly papillose, endostome pale yellow, lightly papillose, basal membrane to _ of exostome teeth length, segments well-developed, broadly perforate, cilia 2–4, appendiculate. Spores 14–18 μm, lightly roughened. Calyptra not seen.



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