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Published In: Mémoires de la Société des Sciences Naturelles et Mathématiques de Cherbourg 16: 199. 1872. (Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Math. Cherbourg) Name publication detail

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Bryum procerum is distinguished from all other members of the genus in Central America by its exceptionally robust size. It is structurally similar to B. densifolium and both species often have doubly serrate leaf margins. Distinctive features of B. procerum include its long-decurrent, strongly limbate leaves, large cells, and generally plurisetous condition. This species has been placed in Rhodobryum on the basis of its large size, multiple setae, and Rhodobryum-type costa, but its evenly foliated stems and lack of stolons place it in Bryum. Typically the leaves of B. procerum are broad, laxly contorted and spreading when dry, however the species can also have erect leaves that are spirally contorted when dry like those of Bryum billarderi or the robust species of Brachymenium. These odd-leaved forms of B. procerum often occur as new growth on otherwise typical plants. This expression of B. procerum differs from the other species of Bryum with spirally contorted leaves in their larger size, and evenly foliate leaves.

Ochi (1981, 1994) synonymized Bryum geminidens with B. procerum, despite its smaller size, because of its decurrent leaves and occasionally double toothed margin. Bryum geminidens, however, is better placed in B. densifolium.

Bryum manginii is a Mexican species placed in the synonymy of B. procerum by Ochi (1981). All Central American material named as such by Bartram (1949) is either B. canariense or B. pseudotriquetrum.

Illustrations: Bartram (1949, Fig. 81 A–B); Ochi (1981, Fig 51 A–C); Sharp et al. (1995, Fig. 370 a–c); Churchill and Linares (1995, Fig. 30 f–i). Figure 150 A–D.
Habitat: On soil or humus in forest and over rocks (limestone), rarely on trees; 2700–3700 m.
Distribution in Central America: GUATEMALA. Chimaltenango: Standley 58764 (F); Huehuetenango: Steyermark 48391 (F, MO, NY); Quezaltenango: Steyermark 34102 (F, NY); San Marcos: Standley 85398 (F, NY); Sololá: Steyermark 47562 (F, MO); Totonicapán: Standley 84006 (F, NY). COSTA RICA. Cartago: Bowers 720 (TENN); Puntarenas: Chacón 540 (MO, NY); San José: Crosby & Crosby 5716 (MO, TENN). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Davidse et al. 25344 (MO).
World Range: Mexico; Central America; Western and Northern South America.


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Bryum procerum Schimp. ex Besch., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 119. 1872.

Rhodobryum procerum (Schimp. ex Besch.) Par., Index Bryol. 1119. 1898. Protologue: Mexico. Orizaba, in pinetis (Liebmann); in sylva San Nicolas, prope Mejico (Bourg. sept. 1865). 

Bryum mangini[i] Card., Rev. Bryol. 36: 115. 1909. Protologue: Mexico. Mexique, sans indication de localité (Diguet; herb Museum [Paris]). 

Plants robust, green to yellowish green in loose tufts to (3–)7–14(–36) cm high; rhizoids reddish brown, papillose, densely clothing stems. Leaves 6–12 x 4–6 mm, erect to erect-spreading, laxly contorted, evenly and well‑spaced along stems, at times erect‑imbricate and spirally contorted when dry, ovate‑lanceolate; apices acuminate; margins recurved below, plane above, bordered by 4–5 rows of long, narrow, thick-walled cells, sharply serrate in upper half, the teeth single or double, decurrent at base; costae shortly excurrent, in cross section with several layers of enlarged ventral cells, median guide cells and a weakly developed cluster of dorsal stereids; upper cells rhomboidal to long-hexagonal, firm‑walled, often porose, 60–110 x 20–30 μm, basal cells long‑rectangular, 160–140 x 30 μm, alar cells shorter and broader, otherwise weakly differentiated. Dioicous. Setae 1–5 per perichaetium, 30–50 mm long, dark-red. Capsules 4–7 mm long, cylindrical, inclined to pendent, weakly striate at base; opercula 1 mm long, conic-apiculate; peristome perfect, exostome teeth red-yellow, densely and finely papillose below, more coarsely papillose above, strongly trabeculate at back, endostome yellowish hyaline, lightly papillose, basal membrane to ½–_ of exostome teeth length, segments well-developed, broadly perforate, cilia 2–3, appendiculate. Spores 10–16 μm, lightly papillose. Calyptra not seen.


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