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Published In: Revue Bryologique et Lichénologique 6: 96. 1933[1934]. (Rev. Bryol. Lichénol.) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

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Hymenostylium recurvirostrum is a widespread species with the same size, color, and aspect of Gymnostomum aeruginosum which is also gymnostomous. Gymnostomum aeruginosum differs from H. recurvirostrum in having a stem central strand, enlarged ventral epidermal cells on the costa, plane leaf margins, and non-porose leaf cells. Anoectangium aestivum, and Molendoa sendtneriana can also be confused with H. recurvirostrum. Both species differ from H. recurvirostrum in having a stem central strand. Anoectangium aestivum further differs from H. recurvirostrum in having an apiculus ending in 1–3 clear cells, a deeply grooved costa that is only 2–3 cells wide on the ventral surface and has no ventral stereid band, and non-porose leaf cells. Molendoa sendtneriana is similar to H. recurvirostrum in sometimes having porose leaf cells, but it also differs in having often massive, multiple papillae centered over the cell lumina. Tuerckheimia svihlae, a Mexican and North American species, is similar to H. recurvirostrum in color and costal development, it differs in having massive, multiplex leaf cell  papillae that are centered over the cell lumina. Zander (1977) provided an in-depth treatment of H. recurvirostrum and its relationships.

Illustrations: Bartram (1949, Fig. 42 D–F); Zander (1977, Figs. 32–46); Crum and Anderson (1981, Figs. 125–126); Zander (1993, Pl. 32 1–5); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 187). Figure 35.
Habitat: On seeping and dripping limestone cliffs, tufa, or calcareous boulders, often in or near waterfalls; 450–3700 m.
Distribution in Central America: BELIZE. Cayo: Allen 18385 (BRH, MO); Toledo: Allen 18339 (BRH, MO). GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Steyermark 44575 (F, FH, MO, NY); Baja Verapaz: Sharp 2847 (MO); Huehuetenango: Hermann 26324 (MO); Quiché: Sharp 2532 (MO); San Marcos: Steyermark 35701 (F); Zacapa: Steyermark 42934 (MO, NY). HONDURAS. Copán: Allen 17695 (MO, TEFH); Lempira: Allen 12041 (MO, TEFH). COSTA RICA. Cartago: King C-1276 (MO).
World Range: Subarctic America, Western and Eastern Canada, Northwestern, North-Central, Northeastern, Southwestern, South-Central, and Southeastern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Northern, Western, and Southern South America, Brazil; Northern, Middle, Eastern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Europe; Siberia, Russian Far East, Caucasus, Middle Asia, Mongolia, China, Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Arabian Peninsula; Northern Africa,  Northeast and East Tropical Africa, Southern Africa; Indian Subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia; Australia, New Zealand.


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Hymenostylium recurvirostrum (Hedw.) Dix., Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 6: 96. 1934.

Gymnostomum recurvirostrum Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 33. 1801. Protologue: Poland and Germany. In rupibus gypsaceis prope Osterode et Niedersachswerfen dextexit Ehrhart

Plants small to medium-sized, tufted or forming mats, yellowish green to yellowish brown, saxicolous or terricolous. Stems erect, 2–45 mm high, smooth or papillose, sclerodermis present, central strand absent; rhizoids red-brown, smooth to lightly roughened. Leaves distant and evenly spaced, lanceolate, oblong or ligulate, 1–3 mm long, appressed, somewhat contorted and incurved when dry, erect to wide-spreading when wet; apices acute to acuminate or obtuse, mucronate; margins generally plane above weakly recurved on one side or both sides at mid-leaf or below, entire to crenulate; costa ending just below the apex, narrow, dorsal surface smooth, ventral surface smooth, guide cells and two stereid bands present, ventral surface cells not enlarged; upper cells round quadrate to oblate above and becoming short-rectangular below mid-leaf, 8–20 x 8–14 μm, walls thickened to incrassate and frequently nodose, cells papillose with low papillae centered over lumina, basal cells rectangular to oblong, 20–40 x 12–18 μm, walls somewhat thickened and pitted, smooth, alar cells not differentiated. Dioicous. Setae 4–10 mm long, reddish brown, smooth, sigmoid when dry. Capsules exserted, erect, short cylindrical, 0.8–1.2 mm long, smooth, systylius, reddish brown; stomata in neck; opercula obliquely rostrate, 1 mm long. peristome absent. Spores 12–18 μm, granulate, brown. Calyptrae 1.5–2 mm, cucullate, smooth.



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