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Published In: Die Laubmoose Deutschlands, Oesterreichs und der Schweiz 1: 250. 1886. (Laubm. Deutschl.) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/16/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
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Although M. sendtneriana is quite variable in size, the species in Central America can  recognized by the following combination of features: stem central stand present, leaves linear- lanceolate, broadly grooved above, margins plane (occasionally weakly recurved), and costa  subpercurrent to percurrent with two stereid bands and an enlarged ventral epidermis layer. The leaf cells in most Central American collections of this species have massive papillae that bulge outward and obscure the cell lumina. This feature is also present in the North American/Mexican species Tuerckheimia svihlae as well as Trichostomum portoricensis, and is most obvious when the leaves are examined in a water-mount. The leaves of Trichostomum portoricensis differ from those of M. sendtneriana in being deeply, narrowly keeled,  having a stoutly excurrent costa, and  irregularly bulging laminae. Tuerckheimia svihlae differs from M. sendtneriana in having terminal perichaetia, fragile leaves with more regularly formed upper leaf cells, consistently straight-walled basal leaf cells, and papillae that are centered over the cell lumina. Although some forms of Gymnostomum aeruginosum can be difficult to distinguish from M. sendtneriana, the presence in the former of a subpercurrent costa, and low, simple leaf papillae will usually distinguish the two species. When dealing with fertile material the presence of terminal perichaetia in Gymnostomum aeruginosum is another feature that separates it from M. sendtneriana. Hymenostylium recurvirostrum differs from M. sendtneriana in lacking a stem central strand.  Zander’s (1977) account of Molendoa in Middle America gives a detailed treatment of the M. sendtneriana.

Illustrations: Bartram (1949, Fig. 38 H–J as Anoectangium incurvans, Fig. 39 D–F as A. obtusifolium); Zander (1977, Figs.17–31); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 192). Figure 58.
Habitat: On soil, soil over rocks and rock faces, on trees, and limestone cliffs; 1200–3400 m.
Distribution in Central America: GUATEMALA. Baja Verapaz: Sharp 2805 (MO); Huehuetenango: Sharp 4782 (FH); Zacapa: Steyermark 43169 (FH, NY). HONDURAS. El Paraíso: Davidse et al. 35019 (MO, TEFH); Lempira: Allen 11945 (MO, TEFH); Santa Bárbara: Allen 11621A (MO, TEFH). NICARAGUA. Jinotega: Stevens 10081A (MO). COSTA RICA. Cartago: Maas 774 (CR, MO); San José: Davidse 24958A (MO). PANAMA. Bocas del Toro: Allen 5260 (MO, PMA); Darién: Mori & Gentry 4282 (MO, PMA).
World Range: Subarctic North America, Western and Eastern Canada, Northwestern, Southwestern, South-Central, and Southeastern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Western and Southern South America, Brazil; Northern, Middle, Eastern, Southwestern, and Southeastern Europe; Siberia, Russian Far East, Caucasus, Middle Asia, China, Eastern Asia; Northeast Tropical Africa; Indian Subcontinent.


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Molendoa sendtneriana (Bruch & Schimp.) Limpr., Laubm. Deutschl. 1: 250. 1886.

Anoectangium sendtnerianum Bruch & Schimp. in B.S.G., Bryol. Eur. 1: 89 (fasc. 29–30). 1846. Zygodon sendtnerianum (Bruch & Schimp.) C. Müll., Syn. Musc. Frond. 1: 686. 1849. Protologue: Austria. In alpibus Salisburgensibus, “i der Rauris prpe dem Tauernhaus”(Funk) et in Alp. Julicis loco “Mangarska skala” (Sendtener).

            Gymnostomum incurvans Schimp. ex Besch., Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 16: 159. 1872. Hymenostylium incurvans (Schimp. ex Besch.) Broth., Nat. Pfl. 1(3): 389. 1902.  Anoectangium incurvans (Schimp. ex Besch.) Bartr., Bryologist 49: 111. 1946. Protologue. Mexico. Cerro del Borrego (F. Müller, 1853).

Molendoa obtusifolia Broth. & Par. ex Card., Rev. Bryol. 40: 36. 1913. Anoectangium obtusifolium (Broth. & Par. ex Card.) Grout, Moss Fl. N. Amer. 1(3): 150. 1938. Protologue: Mexico. Environs de Puebla (Frère Nicolas, 1911), État de Vera-Cruz: Jalapa (C. R. Orcutt, 1912, n°5361).

Plants small, caespitose, yellowish green to glaucous-green, saxicolous or sometimes corticolous. Stems erect, 5–20 mm high, branching irregularly, central strand present, inner cortical cells thin-walled, uniform throughout, outer cortical cells thin-walled, smaller than inner cortical cells, reddish brown, in 1 row, rhizoids red-brown. Leaves evenly spaced, contorted when dry, spreading when wet, recurved, lamina plane to broadly channeled, linear-lanceolate, 1–2.5 x 0.2–0.5 mm; apices acute to acuminate, or somewhat obtuse, at times mucronate; margins plane occasionally recurved below, entire, sinuolate or crenulate; costae subpercurrent to percurrent, narrow, cells on ventral surface papillose, rectangular to quadrate, cells on dorsal surface sparsely papillose to smooth, rectangular, guide cells present, ventral stereid band weak consisting of a few cells, ventral surface cells enlarged, smaller than the laminal cells, dorsal stereid band well-developed, dorsal surface cells small, thick-walled; upper cells homogeneous, oblate, quadrate or short-rectangular, 6–14 x 8–10 μm, thick-walled, cells pluripapillose, papillae low scattered over the lumina, occasionally fused into a single, large papilla, basal cells homogeneous, marginal cells not differentiated, rectangular, 1–2:4, walls thin, smooth, alar cells not differentiated. Dioicous. Perigonia lateral, gemmae, perichaetia lateral on branches.  Setae 4–6 mm long, yellow-brown, smooth. Capsules exserted, erect, short cylindrical, 0.5–1 mm long, smooth, yellowish brown; stomata in neck; opercula rostrate, 0.5–1 mm; peristome absent. Spores round, 9–12 μm in diameter, essentially smooth, brown. Calyptrae smooth.



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