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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 163–169. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/11/2017)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 8/10/2009)


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1. Campanula L. (bellflower)

Plants annual or perennial herbs. Stems erect or loosely ascending, unbranched or few-branched. Leaves sessile or petiolate, the margins entire or sharply toothed. Inflorescences spikes, racemes, or panicles, the flowers from the axils of mostly reduced (much shorter and narrower than the leaves) bracts. Flowers epigynous, not cleistogamous. Calyces actinomorphic, all 5-lobed, often with a short, reflexed appendage between each of the lobes, persistent at fruiting. Corollas actinomorphic, funnel-shaped to bell-shaped or saucer-shaped, 5-lobed, but usually not divided below the middle, commonly blue or white. Stamens 5, attached to the base of the corolla, the filaments dilated and hairy at the base, the anthers distinct, elongate. Pistil with 3–5 carpels. Ovary totally inferior, with 3–5 locules. Style elongate, the stigma 3–5-lobed. Fruits obconical to nearly globose capsules, often longitudinally ribbed, dehiscent by 3–5 lateral pores or slits. Seeds ellipsoid, sometimes somewhat flattened, the surface brown, shiny. About 300 species, nearly worldwide, but most diverse in temperate portions of the Northern Hemisphere.


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1 1. Stem leaves lanceolate, more than 4 mm wide; inflorescences dense racemes, erect or strongly ascending, relatively stout

2 2. Leaf blades with the margins evenly toothed; corolla saucer-shaped; style of open flowers S-shaped, strongly exserted from the corolla; fruits erect or ascending, dehiscing by apical pores ... 1. C. AMERICANA

Campanula americana
3 2. Leaf blades with the margins coarsely and somewhat unevenly toothed; corolla bell-shaped; style of open flowers straight, included within or barely exserted from the corolla; fruits nodding, dehiscing by basal pores ... 3. C. RAPUNCULOIDES

Campanula rapunculoides
4 1. Stem leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate, mostly 1–4 mm wide; inflorescences of solitary flowers or in open, few-flowered clusters, spreading to loosely ascending

5 3. Stems slender, loosely spreading and often reclining on other plants; leaf blades with recurved hairs having swollen bases along the margins and midvein; corollas 3–8 mm long, pale blue to nearly white ... 2. C. APARINOIDES

Campanula aparinoides
6 3. Stems relatively robust, erect to loosely ascending, but not reclining on adjacent plants; leaves glabrous; corollas 10–20 mm long, blue ... 4. C. ROTUNDIFOLIA Campanula rotundifolia
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