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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 163–169. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: E. NASIR
General/Distribution: A genus of over 300 species, mostly in the temperate regions. Represented in Pakistan by c.15 species.


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Plants perennial or annual, erect trailing or decumbent, glabrous, pubescent, or hirsute. Leaves simple, alternate or forming rosettes at the base. Inflorescence 1-many flowered, with racemes or spikes. Flowers blue to purple or white. Sepals 5, with or without reflexed appendages between lobes; calyx tube adnate to the ovary, segments 5-lobed. Corolla campanulate, funnel-shaped or tubular. Stamens 5, free, filaments dilated at the base. Ovary 3-locular; style cylindrical; stigmas 3. Fruit a capsule, elongated to ovoid, obovoid or round, with membran¬ous walls; dehiscence by irregular pores at the bases or the sides. Seeds minute, numerous.

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1 Calyx with appendages (2)
+ Calyx without appendages (5)
2 (1) Style as long or shorter than corolla (3)
+ Style exserted beyond the lobes of the corolla (4)
3 (2) Plants hirsute. Corolla tubular, hairy outside 2 Campanula leucantha
+ Plants sparsely hairy. Corolla campanulate, glabrous 1 Campanula staintonii
4 (2) Plants up to 40 cm tall, not caespitose. Stems glabrous to slightly hirsute, white 3 Campanula leucoclada
+ Plants c. 10 cm tall, caespitose. Stems hirsute, not white 4 Campanula polyclada
5 (1) Cauline leaves linear, 1 -5 cm long (6)
+ Leaves lanceolate to ovate or oval, 5 mm to 12 cm long (8)
6 (5) All leaves linear. Inflorescence a branched raceme. Capsule dehiscence towards the base (7)
+ Radical leaves spathulate, cauline linear. Flower single, terminal. Capsule dehiscence towards the top 5 Campanula aristata
7 (6) Plants pubescent. Flowers c. 1.3 cm long. Calyx segments c. 5 mm long, not split to the base. Ribs of the sepals not prominent at the base 6 Campanula sylvatica
+ Plants almost glabrous. Flowers c. 2 cm long, Calyx segments c. 1 cm long, split almost to the base. Ribs of the sepals swollen at the base 7 Campanula sulaimanii
8 (5) Plants erect or not, glabrous, hirsute, strigose or pubescent. Flowers in lax racemes, not in clusters (9)
+ Plants erect, densely hirsute. Flowers in clustered branched racemes 8 Campanula benthamii
9 (8) Plants hirsute to strigose or hoary pubescent. Flowers small, less than 1 cm long (10)
+ Plants glabrous to hirsute or pubescent. Flowers up to 5 cm long (12)
10 (9) Leaves ovate to oblong, 5-50 mm long, hirsute to densely white pubescent. Flowers 3-5 mm long. Capsule rounded at the base (11)
+ Leaves narrow lanceolate, 5-15 mm long. Flowers numerous at tips of branches, 5-8 mm long. Capsule narrowed at the base 10 Campanula tenuissima
11 (10) Plants procumbent. Leaves 5-10 mm, densely white pubescent, margin crenate. Flowers c.5 mm long 13 Campanula argyrotricha
+ Plants erect. Leaves 15-30 mm, hirsute, Flowers 3-5 mm long 11 Campanula tristis
12 (9) Plants erect, less than 1 m tall or procumbent to straggling; hirsute or densely white hoary pubescent (13)
+ Plants erect; up to 1 m tall. Stem glabrous Flowers up to 5 cm long 9 Campanula latifolia
13 (12) Plants hirsute. Flowers up to 1 cm long (14)
+ Plants densely hoary, tomentose. Flowers up to 2 cm long 12 Campanula cashmeriana
14 (13) Plants procumbent. Flowers up to 3 mm long. Petals absent. Calyx teeth minute 14 Campanula alsinoides
+ Plants erect to procumbent. Flowers 1 cm long. Corolla campanulate. Calyx teeth prominent 15 Campanula pallida
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