Home Flora of Missouri
Name Search
Papaver L. Search in The Plant ListSearch in IPNISearch in Australian Plant Name IndexSearch in Index Nominum Genericorum (ING)Search in NYBG Virtual HerbariumSearch in JSTOR Plant ScienceSearch in SEINetSearch in African Plants Database at Geneva Botanical GardenAfrican Plants, Senckenberg Photo GallerySearch in Flora do Brasil 2020Search in Reflora - Virtual HerbariumSearch in Living Collections Decrease font Increase font Restore font

Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 506. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/1/2017)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 7/9/2009)
Status: Introduced


Export To PDF Export To Word

4. Papaver L. (poppy) (Kiger, 1975, 1997)

Plants annual (perennial herbs elsewhere), with taproots; sap white, orange, or red. Aerial stems loosely to strongly ascending (absent elsewhere), glabrous or hairy, sometimes glaucous. Leaves basal and alternate on the stems, the basal leaves short- to long-petiolate (sessile in P. somniferum), the stem leaves mostly short-petiolate to sessile. Leaf blades pinnately lobed (often merely coarsely toothed in P. somniferum), the lobes toothed to dissected, variously shaped, the surfaces glabrous or hairy, sometimes glaucous. Flowers solitary, terminal on the stem or branches, long-stalked, the stalk erect or nodding in bud, erect or ascending at flowering, lacking bracts, the receptacle slightly expanded at the tip but not forming a cup or disc. Sepals 2, free, shed individually as the flower opens, 10–35 mm long, broadly elliptic-ovate and deeply concave (cupped around the flower), broadly pointed at the tip. Petals 4, broadly obovate, broadly rounded and often somewhat uneven or slightly ruffled at the tip, pink, red, or purple, occasionally white, pale lavender blue, or orange, often with a pronounced dark or light spot at the base. Stamens numerous. Ovary lacking a well-differentiated style at flowering, the stigma forming a stout, sessile, crownlike or disclike, 5–18-lobed structure, this especially evident at fruiting. Fruits erect or ascending, narrowly to broadly obovoid to nearly globose, more or less truncate to slightly convex at the tip, crowned by the persistent stigmatic stucture, glabrous or hairy, sometimes longitudinally ribbed, dehiscing by pores near the tip. Seeds 0.4–0.7 mm long, kidney-shaped, lacking an aril, the surface with a network of ridges and pits, dark brown to black, shiny. Seventy to 100 species, North America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia.

A number of poppy species are cultivated as bedding plants in gardens or as components of wildflower meadows or highway median plantings. In addition to the three species that escape from cultivation in Missouri that are treated below, three other species might in the future become established in the state. Papaver atlanticum (Ball) Coss. (Moroccan poppy) is similar to P. dubium, but differs in its perennial habit, yellow (vs. dark purple to black) anthers, and strongly ribbed fruits. Papaver glaucum Boiss. & Hausskn. (tulip poppy) is similar to P. somniferum, but differs in its smaller buds (1–2 vs. 2–4 cm long), and smaller fruits (1.5–2.0 cm long at maturity). Papaver orientale L. (Oriental poppy) is similar to P. rhoeas, but differs in its perennial habit, bigger buds (2.0–3.5 vs. 0.5–2.0 cm long), and bigger petals (4–8 cm long).

© 2023 Missouri Botanical Garden - 4344 Shaw Boulevard - Saint Louis, Missouri 63110