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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 184. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: YASIN J. NASIR
General/Distribution: c. 1400 species, widespread in tropical and temperate regions of both the hemispheres. Represented in Pakistan by 15 species, of which 8 are native.


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Herbs. shrubs or small trees, often prickly or hairy. Leaves simple or divided. Flowers rarely solitary. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, sometimes enlarging in fruit. Corolla rotate; lobes 5, spreading or recurved. Stamens attached near mouth of corolla tube, exserted; anthers cone-like, with bases adnate to one another, dehiscence by 2 apical pores. Fruit a berry. Seeds compressed.

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1 Plants armed with prickles (2)
+ Plants unarmed (9)
2 (1) Prostrate plants. Leaves dark green above 4 Solanum surattense
+ Erect to scrambling shrubs or undershrubs, rarely small trees. Leaves usually greyish-green Above (3)
3 (2) Plants cultivated (4)
+ Plants indigenous or sometimes naturalised (S. elaegnifolium) (5)
4 (3) Annual suffruticose herbs, 60-90 cm tall. Flowers purple to pale violet. Berries more than 80 mm long, ovoid, globose to elongated, normally various shades of purple 10 Solanum melongena
+ Perennial shrubs or small tree from 120-190 cm tall. Flowers white. Berries 8-12 mm broad, globose, yellow 11 Solanum torvum
5 (3) Scrambling undershrubs, sparsely prickly. Leaves orbicular-oblong to subcordate 5 Solanum cordatum
+ Erect to scandent prickly shrubs. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate or oblong (6)
6 (5) Prickles acicular. Plants usually of neglected fields etc 7 Solanum elaeagnifolium
+ Prickles curved. Plants not weedy in nature (7)
7 (6) Leaves from 2 -5 cm long. Inflorescence 2-6-flowered 6 Solanum forskalii
+ Leaves 3.5-15 cm long. Inflorescence (3-) 4-15 flowered (8)
8 (7) Inflorescence with most upper flowers staminate. Calyx 6-7 mm long. Berry 25-30 mm broad 9 Solanum incanum
+ Inflorescence with all flowers bisexual. Calyx 3-4 mm long. Berry 8-10 mm broad 8 Solanum anguivi
9 (1) Annual or perennial herbs (10)
+ Shrubs or semi-shrubs (11)
10 (9) Annual. Underground stem tubers absent. Leaves entire to irregular dentate. Corolla limb 5-6 mm broad 1 Solanum nigrum
+ Perennial. Underground stem tubers present. Leaves imparipinnate. Corolla limb 25 mm broad 14 Solanum tuberosum
11 (9) Shrubby climbers or scramblers (12)
+ Erect shrubs (14)
12 (11) Leaves entire 13 Solanum jasminoides
+ Leaves pinnate or at least the base of some pin natipartite (13)
13 (12) Leaves entire or the base 1-4-pinnatipartite. Flowers in extra-axillary paniculate cymes. Plants not cultivated 2 Solanum dulcamara
+ Leaves pinnate. Flowers in terminal drooping panicles. Plants cultivated 12 Solanum seaforthianum
14 (11) Plants densely stellate-tomentose. Leaves 8-25 x 4.0-9.5 cm. Berries yellow 3 Solanum erianthum
+ Plants glabrous to puberulous or scabrid. Leaves 3-8 x 1.0-3.5 cm. Berries scarlet-red, shiny
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