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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/22/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 7/22/2013)
Genus Cavendishia Lindl.
PlaceOfPublication Bot. Reg. 21: sub pl. 1791. 1836.
Note TYPE: C. nobilis Lindley. ?Chupalon Adans., Fam. P1. 2: 164. 1763.
Synonym Socratesia Klotzsch, Linnaea 24: 22. 1851. TYPE: S. mielastomoides Klotzsch. Polyboea Klotzsch, Linnaea 24: 24. 1851. Proclesia Klotzsch, Linnaea 24: 32. 1851.
Description Erect shrubs, evergreen, epiphytic or terrestrial; bark thin, cracking longi- tudinally. Leaves alternate, simple, estipulate, plinerved or pinnate, coriaceous, marginally entire and revolute, both surfaces usually with multicellular, red- dish or blackish, slightly sunken, glandular trichomes to 0.2 mm long, if glabres- cent appearing punctate. Inflorescence axillary, racemose or subfasciculate, usu- ally solitary, encircled at the base by a progression of bracts, the smallest bracts minute and triangular, the largest conforming to the shape and size of the in- dividual floral bracts, the inflorescence bracts few to numerous, imbricate, coriaceous, smooth or minutely striate or muricate, marginally scarious and usu- ally minutely glandular fimbriate; floral bracts solitary at base of pedicel, usually large and showy; pedicels cylindric, bibracteolate near the base or rarely mid- way up the pedicel; bracteoles chartaceous or coriaceous. Flowers with the hypanthium articulate at the pedicel, constricted at the base of the limb, the tube basally expanded or not, fused with the ovary wall, the limb erect or spreading, free from the ovary wall, 5-lobed; corolla tubular, usually carnose when fresh, 5-lobed, the lobes valvate or conduplicate valvate, usually flaring at anthesis; stamens 10, subequal or rarely unequal, subequalling the corolla, the filaments ligulate, usually distinct, rarely slightly coherent at the extreme base at anthe- sis, alternately unequal, the anthers alternately unequal, the thecae smooth or slightly granular, the tubules about the same width as the thecae and about twice as long, dehiscent by introrse, elongate clefts; ovary inferior, 5-locular, surmounted by a flat of cupuliform, nectariferous disc, the style filiform, straight or sigmoid, usually glabrous, the stigma minutely 5-lobed, truncate but slightly flaring at anthesis. Fruit a juicy, spherical, dark blue black berry; seeds many, minute, 0.5-1 mm long, the testa ruminate.
Habit shrubs
Note Cavendishia may be easily recognized by usually large, brightly colored floral bracts and by stamens with alternately unequal filaments and anthers. Cavendishia is a neotropical genus of epiphytic and terrestrial shrubs with- approximately 150 species. They are distributed from the Mexican state of Oaxaca south through montane Central America to Bolivia, and as far east as Surinam. The greatest concentration of species occurs in Colombia where ap- proximately 70 species have been recognized. In Central America the genus is most abundant in Panama and Costa Rica where all of the 30 species recognized occur. Most species have narrow distributional ranges; many are restricted to single mountain ranges or to one particular peak. Cavendishia crassifolia has the greatest geographic distribution of the Central American species ranging from Mexico to Panama. Cavendishia callista is found in Guatemala and again in Costa Rica and Panama.
Reference Luteyn, J. L. 1975. The genus Cavendishia (Vacciniaceae) in Costa Rica. Brenesia 6: 9-18. Luteyn, J.L. 1976. A revision of the genus Cavendishia (Vacciniaceae) in Mexico and Central America. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 28(3): 1-138.
Key a. Leaves sessile to subsessile, amplexicaul with strongly cordate bases; calyx lobes imbricate ...... 7. C. complectens aa. Leaves subsessile to long petiolate, never amplexicaul, and with variously shaped but never strongly cordate bases; calyx lobes not imbricate, or if basally contiguous then the leaves long petiolate. b. Calyx tube usually conspicuously enlarged basally or with a wide spreading basal rim, if inconspicuously enlarged then with globular glands; calyx lobes and brac- teoles marginally, apically, or completely glandular-callose thickened or with intermittent stout, oblong glandular thickenings (C. quewina), the lobes never glandular fimbriate, the bracteoles rarely glandular fimbriate and if with glan- dular fimbriae then the calyx and corolla pilose and the leaves less than 7 cm long (bracteoles eglandular in C. santafeijnsis); calyx lobes erect after anthesis. c. Leaves apically rounded, obtuse, if acute then the leaves usually less than 7 cm long; corolla 15 mm long or less; calyx sinuses usually ciliate; calyx lobes with several, small, intermittent, stout glandular thickenings which sometimes coalesce distally to form short oblong glandular thickenings ...... 19. C. quercina cc. Leaves apically acuminate to caudate acuminate, if acute then leaves mostly more than 7 cm long; corolla usually 15 mm long or more; calyx sinuses glabrous; calyx lobes completely callose thickened, or with distinct thicken- ings running the length of the margin. d. Plants with globular, peltate, red glands to 0.7 mm in diameter on calyx tubes, floral bract margins, bracteole margins, pedicels, and ra- chises; leaves with scattered globular glands 0.1-0.2 mm in diameter along the upper surface and the margin, these caducous leaving a red- dish or blackish, papillate scar; calyx tube little or not enlarged. e. Leaves linear lanceolate to linear elliptic, about 9 times as long as broad, usually without globular glands at maturity; bracteoles ca. 25 mm long, located just below the calyx; Bocas del Toro and Veraguas (Atlantic slope) Provinces ...... 17. C. pseudostenophylla ee. Leaves elliptic, lance elliptic to ovate lanceolate, less than 4 times as long as broad, with globular glands at maturity; bracteoles less than 5 mm long, located at the base of the pedicel; Chiriqui Province. f. Leaves less than 10 cm long and 4 cm wide, apically caudate acuminate; rachis less than 5 cm long, ca. 1 mm in diameter at its base, with 6-9(-11) flowers; floral bracts less than 30 mm long; bracteoles linear; pedicels less than 10 mm long; calyx 3.5-4.5 mm long, the tube surface not obscured by globular glands, the lobes entirely callose thickened; corolla less than 25 mm long; style less than 25 mm long ...... 6. C. chiriquiensis ff. Leaves greater than 10 cm long, 4 cm or more wide, apically acuminate; rachis greater than 8 cm long, ca. 5 mm in diam- eter at its base, with 11-21 flowers; floral bracts 30 mm long or longer; bracteoles ovate to lanceolate; pedicels 10 mm or more long; calyx 4-6 mm long, the tube surface obscured by globular glands, the lobes marginally callose thickened; corolla 25 mm or more long; style 25 mm long or more ...... 16. C. panamensis dd. Plants without globular, peltate, red glands; leaves without globular glands; calyx tube conspicuously basally enlarged. g. Calyx lobes with oblong, callose-thickened glands the entire length of each margin; bracteoles 3 cm or more long; Veraguas Province ...... 21. C . santafeL ~nsis gg. Calyx lobes completely glandular callose thickened over the entire surface, not just marginally; bracteoles less than 1 cm long. h. Leaves linear to elliptic lanceolate, 5-6 times as long as broad, pinnately veined, marginally strongly revolute; floral bracts marginally callose thickened for the distal %/n; bracte- oles continuous with the pedicels ...... 22. C. stenophylla hh. Leaves variously shaped but never linear, less than 5 times as long as broad, pfinerved, marginally nearly flat; floral bracts marginally eglandular; bracteoles articulated with the pedicels. i. Floral bracts apically acute or rounded, never emargin- ate; rachis elongate, 3-12(-20) cm long, rarely shorter (and then floral bracts 6-10 mm long). j. Corolla pubescent; floral bracts ( 15-)25-40 (-50) mm long. k. Corolla densely sericeous, white; rachis (4-) 6-12(20) cm long with 20-35 flowers; petioles densely pilose to glabrate; Veraguas, Cocle, and Panama Provinces ...... 4. C. callista kk. Corolla short pilose, purple; rachis 3-6(-9) cm long with (7-)11-16(-20) flowers; petioles gla- brous even when young; Chiriqui Province ...... 2. C . atroviolacea jj. Corolla glabrous; floral bracts 6-20 mm long. 1. Corolla 18-20 mm long, lobes callose thick- ened; bracteoles lanceolate; floral bracts 15-20 mm long; Darien Province ......15. C. rmorii 11. Corolla 28-32 mm long, lobes not callose thick- ened; bracteoles broadly ovate to hemispheric; floral bracts 6--10 mm long; Chiriqui Province ......14. C. melastomoides var. coloradeiisis ii. Floral bracts apically rounded and usually noticeably emarginate; rachis short (0.3-)0.6-2(-3.5) cm long. m. Corolla 27-43 mm long; stamens 24.5 mm long or more; style more than 30 mm long; floral bracts (2-) 3-6 (-7) cm long, dark red in bud but turning pink or pale purplish red at anthesis; calyx 7-13 mm long, the limb including the lobes (4-)5-7.5 (-9) mm long and cylindric to slightly spreading ...... 13. C. m egabracteata mm. Corolla 20-24 ( -30) mm long; stamens 24.5 mm long or less; style less than 30 mm long; floral bracts 1.5-3(-4) cm long, green; calyx 5-7(-10) mm long, the limb including the lobes 2.5-4.5(-6) mm long and campanulate to cylindric ...... 23. C. subfasciculata bb. Calyx tube basally rounded, truncate, or with a narrow rim, never conspicuously enlarged, the rim never flaring, never with globular glands on the surface of the tube; calyx lobes and bracteoles usually with marginal, caducous glandular fimbriae to 0.2 mm long, never callose thickened (calyx lobes eglandular in C. darienensis; bracteoles eglandular in C. fusiformis); calyx lobes connivent or erect after anthesis. n. Calyx limb and floral bracts conspicuously striate; bracteoles striate and 5-20 mm long, if smooth then more than 20 mm long; floral bracts persistent in fruit. o. Bracteoles smooth, more than 20 mm long, apically rounded and emar- ginate; corolla more than 30 mm long; stamens about 1/3 as long as the corolla; calyx limb more than 8 mm long; Darien Province ...... 10. C. fusiformis oo. Bracteoles striate, less than 20 mm long, apically rounded, acute or acuminate but never emarginate; corolla less than 20 mm long; sta- mens about as long as the corolla; calyx limb less than 8 mm long. p. Leaves pinnately veined; floral bracts 13 mm long or less, obovate to semiorbicular; bracteoles 9 mm long or less; corolla 10 mm long or less ......3. C. axillaris pp. Leaves plinerved; floral bracts 13 mm long or longer, lanceolate to elliptic or ovate elliptic, rarely obovate or semiorbicular; brac- teoles usually more than 10 mm long; corolla more than 10 mm long. q. Twigs, leaves, rachises, pedicels, floral bracts, bracteoles, calyces, and corollas short pubescent; rachis more than 8 cm long; floral bracts lanceolate, apically long acuminate; calyx lobes marginally eglandular; corollas nonstriate; Darie'n Province ...... 9. C. darienensis qq. Plants glabrous throughout; rachis less than 5 cm long; floral bracts elliptic, ovate elliptic, obovate, or rarely semiorbicu- lar, apically acute; calyx lobes marginally glandular fimbriate; corollas conspicuously striate; Cocle and Panama provinces ...... 1. C. allenii nn. Calyx limb and floral bracts never striate; bracteoles smooth, never striate, rarely more than 5 mm long; floral bracts caducous soon after anthesis. r. Leaves apically obtuse or rounded, usually less than 6 cm long; calyx lobes erect after anthesis; rachis subfasciculate, less than 1 cm long with 3-6(-7) flowers; pedicels 1.5-2(-5) mm long ...... 5. C. capitulata rr. Leaves apically acuminate or sharply acute, usually greater than 6 cm long; calyx lobes connivent or erect after anthesis; rachis elongate, usu- ally more than 1 cm long with 6 or more flowers; pedicels more than 3 mm long. s. Calyx 9-14 mm long. t. Leaves glabrous, very thick coriaceous, the margins so tightly revolute as to be obscured from view; calyx glabrous; style 10-11 mm long; plants reportedly with odor of wintergreen; Cerro Jefe, Panamar Province ...... 20. C. revoluta tt. Leaves pilose on both surfaces, membranaceous to coriaceous but not conspicuously thickened, the margins only slightly revolute; calyx densely pilose; style ca. 21 mm long; plants lacking the odor of wintergreen; Cerro Tacarcuna, Darien Province ...... 11. C. gentryi ss. Calyx less than 9 mm long. u. Corolla 8-10(-12) mm long; floral bracts 7-13 mm long; rachis 4-15(-20) cm long; Darien Province - 12. C. laurifolia uu. Corolla (12-)15-25 mm long; floral bracts (11-)17-40 mm long; rachis 1-5(-8) cm long. v. Calyx pubescence of densely matted trichomes; plants including mature berry persistently short, white pilose; corollas white or white with a pinkish hue; floral bracts pale green often with a pinkish hue; Chiriqui Province ...... 18. C . pubescens vv. Calyx glabrous or trichomes usually sparse and short, never densely matted; plants glabrous or variously pu- bescent but mature berry always glabrous; corollas pink to red with white tips; floral bracts red; Chiriquf, Ver- aguas, Cocle, and Panama' provinces ...... 8. C. crassifolia
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