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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/15/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 10/15/2013)
Genus Stigmaphyllon Juss.
PlaceOfPublication Fl. Bras. Mer. 3: 48. tab. 171. 1832.
Note TYPE: Banisteria auriculata Cav. Stigmaphyllon auriculatum (Cav.) Juss.
Synonym Brachypterys Juss. in Deless., Icon. Sel. P1. 3: 20. 1837. TYPE: B. australis Juss., nom. illeg. = Stigmaphyllon paralias Juss.
Description Lianas, vines or rarely shrubs, frequently becoming canopy lianas. Leaves opposite or subopposite, rarely alternate, simple, entire, petiolate, membrana- ceous or coriaceous, with glands at the base of the blade or at the apex of the petiole; stipules small and caducous or absent. Inflorescences of umbelliform corymbs, umbels or pseudo-umbels, arranged in dichotomous cymes. Flowers pedicellate with pedunculate pedicels, the central cluster of flowers frequently sessile, the lateral clusters pedunculate; bracts and bracteoles conspicuous; sepals 5, membranaceous or thick, ovate or oblong, with 4 pairs of glands; petals un- guiculate, yellow, sometimes marked with orange or red at the center, the limb orbicular or elliptic, often more or less concave, the margin denticulate or fim- briate, the interior petal often smaller; stamens 10, unequal, the filaments gla- brous, flattened, united briefly at the base, the anthers unequal, the 4 opposite the lateral sepals generally reduced and practically sterile, the remaining 6 well developed, the 3 opposite the pistil larger; ovary trilocular, trilobate, the styles 3, free, erect or curved, somewhat flattened, dilated at apex, spathulate-truncate with the inner angle obtuse and stigmatic, the outer angle acute or apiculate in the medial style, the medial style bilaterally, and symmetrically winged or ap- pendiculate, in the lateral styles unilaterally winged, the appendages foliaceous and pendulous or only enlarged horizontally into a pediform projection. Fruit a schizocarp of three samaras, the seminiferous area rounded or ovoid, smooth, verrucose, tuberculate or with crestlike appendages; the dorsal wing membran- aceous or subcoriaceous with the ventral margin thickened and smooth, the dorsal margin thin, frequently crenulate; rarely with the wing reduced to a crest (section Brachypterys).
Habit Lianas, vines or rarely shrubs
Note Stigmaphyllon is a neotropical genus with about 80 species of climbers and lianas scattered throughout the area; they are found in rain forests and in savannas as well as among thickets and scrubby secondary vegetation, usually from sea level to 2,800 m (2,800 m) elevation. See Adams (1972: 400).
Elevation sea level to 2,800 m
Key a. Fruit almost wingless, the body with about 3 lateral tuberculate ribs, the dorsal wing re- duced to a short, obtusely triangular, terminal crest; styles shortly horizontally dilated, pediform at the apex ...... 5. S. ovatum aa. Fruit with a long, membranaceous or papyraceous, well developed, dorsal wing; styles with a foliaceous appendix or pediform at apex. b. Adult leaves glabrous or glabrate with minute scattered appressed trichomes; branch- lets glabrous ...... 1. S. ellipticum bb. Adult leaves copiously pubescent; branchlets pubescent or strigose. c. Leaf blades elliptic or ovate-elliptic, acute, obtuse or subrounded at base, pin- nately veined throughout. d. Leaf blades subcoriaceous or coriaceous, with lower surface sericeous, shiny, whitish to brown, the trichomes contiguous with each other along much of their length; wing of samara narrowest at base, membranaceous, mostly 2.5-3.9 cm long; the dorsal margin convex; ventral margin straight or curved ...... 3. S. hypargyreum dd. Leaf blades membranaceous, adaxially prominently reticulate, abaxially diluted, appressed puberulous, the principal veins sericeous; wing of the samara broadest at base, subcoriaceous, mostly less than 2 cm long, the dorsal margin concave, the ventral margin straight ...... 6. S. puberum cc. Leaf blades broadly ovate, or elliptic-ovate, cordate or subcordate at base, at least emarginate, usually palmiveined at the base, at least the lowermost pair of veins on each side of the midrib joining before meeting the midrib. e. Indumentum of lower blade surface wooly, the trichomes mostly patulous, flexuose or crisped, 1-2 mm long ...... 2. S. humboldtianum ee. Indumentum of lower blade surface diluted sericeous, the trichomes mi- nute, to 0.8(-1) mm, mostly closely appressed ...... 4. S. lindenianum
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