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Published In: Sertum Anglicum 18. 1788[1789]. (January) (Sert. Angl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 4/5/2012)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 4/5/2012)
Contributor Text:


Contributor Institution:

Don McNair Herbarium, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW-2308, Australia

E-mail:abdul.ghafour@newcastle.edu.au; artemisiella89@gmail.com


A genus of nearly 680 species, endemic to Australia and a few occurring in neighboring countries ( Papua New Guneae, Phillipines, Indonesia).


For accurate identification of Eucalyptus species, it is necessary to collect mature and juvenile leaves, buds, flowers and fruits and to take notes on habit and kind of bark (fibrous or flakey, brown or black, grey or white, and its presence on the trunk alone or all over etc.).

Various fast growing species of Eucalyptus have been introduced in Pakistan. Although they set seed freely, there is no sign of spontaneous regeneration and naturalization. Probably the seeds produced are not viable.


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Evergreen trees, shrubs or mallees with smooth, fibrous, stringy or tessellated persistent or deciduous bark of different colours. Leaves mostly heterophyllous, i.e., seedling, juvenile, intermediate and adult phases; juvenile ones mostly opposite; mature leaves usually petiolate, mostly alternate, linear, or lanceolate to ovate, glabrous, hanging, rarely erect, with a distinct midrib, penninverved or parallel veined. Inflorescence mostly umbellate, condensed, pedunculate, solitary or paired dichasial cymes in leaf axils or in terminal occasionally corymbose panicles. Flowers sessile or pedicellate, 3 – 11 in each umbel; buds variable in shape and size. Calyx and corolla independently or together connate to form an operculum or calyptra (lid) shedding circumscissily at anthesis. Stamens numerous; free, variously inflexed or folded in the bud, sometimes almost straight, all fertile or outer antherless, anthers variable in shape, size and mode of attachment to filament, dehiscing by latrorse or introrse slits or by confluent slits or by terminal pores, connective mostly gland-tipped on back or at the tips. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, sunk into the calyx tube and hypanthuim, 2 – 7-loculed, multiovulate, ovules generally on axile placenta; style slender, with small stigma. Fruit a capsule sunk in woody hypanthium, loculicidal, rarely circumscissile with scars of operculum or persistent disc at the rim, valves exserted, level with rim or bent inwards (included). Seeds numerous, of various shapes and colours.


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Inflorescence simple, axillary umbels.
Inflorescence compound, usually a terminal or lateral panicle of umbels.
Buds 15 – 25 mm long.
Buds less than 15 mm long.
Buds usually 8–10 mm long. Fruits faintly or inconspicuously ribbed.
Buds less than 8 mm long. Fruits not ribbed.
Buds 1 (-3) in each umbel, 14 – 16 mm wide, warty, glaucous. Fruits more than 15 mm wide.
4. E. globulus
Buds 7 or more in each umbel, not warty. Fruits less than 10 mm wide.
Bark hard, rough, deeply furrowed, persistent on trunk and upwards on small branches. Inflorescence panicle of 3-flowered umbels. Fruits ovoid-hemispherical.
5. E. paniculata
Bark rough, fibrous, persistent on lower half of trunk only and shedding in ribbons from top downwards. Inflorescence panicle of (3-) 7-flowered umbels. Fruits cupular, barrel-shaped or ± urceolate.
14. E. moluccana
Buds sessile or on up to 2 mm long pedicels, with conical, acute opercula. Fruit valves 3 or 4, strongly exserted.
11. E. microtheca
Buds on 2 – 6 mm long pedicels, with rounded or obtuse opercula. Fruit valves 3 or 4, ± level to deeply enclosed.
7. E. crebra
Fruits subglobose to ovoid, 4 – 6 mm long. Buds with opercula more than twice as long as wide. Hypanthia much shorter than opercula.
8. E. tereticornis
Fruits bell-shaped or cylindrical, more than 8 mm long. Buds with opercula 1.5 times as long as wide. Hypanthia moderately shorter than opercula.
Leaves apically uncinate, on 8 – 15 mm long petioles. Umbels 7-flowered.
2. E. occidentalis
Leaves apically acuminate, on 2 – 3 mm long petioles. Umbels (7-) 9 – 15-flowered.
15. E. robusta
Fruits ovoid or hemispherical to ± globose, with mostly strongly exserted valves.
Fruits cylindrical or barrel-shaped, with included or level valves.
Buds with opercula elongated, conical to cylindrical, longer than and as wide as hypanthia.
Buds with opercula shorter to as long as and wider than hypanthia.
Peduncles broadly flattened. Buds with hypanthia often ribbed and opercula shorter than hypanthia. Seeds cuboid.
3. E. botryoides
Peduncles 4-angled to terete. Buds with hypanthia not ribbed, but finely striated.
Intramarginal vein up to 2 mm from leaf margins. Fruits 6 – 10 mm across.
6. E. sideroxylon
Intramarginal veins almost confluent with leaf margins. Fruits 4 – 5 mm across.
10. E. dundasii
Inflorescence 7-flowered axillary umbels. Hypanthia 4 – 7 mm wide.
16. E. alba
Inflorescence 7 – 11 (-13)-flowered. Hypanthia up to 4 mm wide.
Disc narrow, descending vertically. Adult leaves uncinate at the apices with intramarginal veins up to 1 mm from leaf margins.
9. E. salmonophloia
Disc broad, ascending. Adult leaves acuminate, with intramarginal veins up to 2 mm from leaf margins.
1. E. camaldulensis
Buds spincle-shaped or fusiform, with 8 – 15 mm long opercula.
8. E. tereticornis
Buds ovoid or ± globose or conical, with less than 8 mm long opercula.
Buds with horn-like, 7 – 9 mm long opercula.
12. E. amplifolia
Buds with hemispherical, rostrate or ± conical, not more than 6 mm long opercula.
Leaf petioles terete or channeled. Bud with obtuse or rostrate opercula.
1. E. camaldulensis
Leaf petiole terete or slightly flattened. Bud with acute opercula.
13. E. dealbata

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