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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 12/19/2012)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 12/19/2012)
Genus EUGENIA L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. PI. 470. 1753.
Synonym Catinga Aubl. Hist. P1. Guian. 1:511. t. 203. 1775. Greggia Gaertn. Fruct. 168. t. 33. 1788. Guapurium Juss. Gen. 324. 1789. Olynthia Lindl. Collect. t. I9, in obs. 1821. Jossinia Comm. ex DC. Prodr. 3:237. 1828. Calophylloides Smeathm. ex DC. loc. cit. 272. 1828. Opanea Raf. Sylva Tellur. 106. 1838. Epleienda Raf. loc. cit. 107. 1838. Lomastelma Raf. loc. cit. 1838. Malidra Raf. loc. cit. 1838. Suarda Nocca, ex Steud. Nomencl. 2:651. 1841. Cerocarpus Hassk. in Flora 25:2 Beibl. 36. 1842. Syllysium Meyen & Schau. in Nova Acta Acad. Nat. Cur. 19: Suppl. 1. 334. 1843. Phyllocalyx Berg, in Linnaea 27:306. 1856. Stenocalyx Berg, loc. cit. 309. 1856. Myrcianthes Berg, loc. cit. 3 1 5. 1856. Hexachiamys Berg, loc. cit. 345. 1856. Anamomis Griseb. Fl. B. W. I. 240. 1860. Psidiastrum Bello, in Anal. Soc. Espafi. Hist. Nat. 10:272. 1881. Myrtopsis 0. Hoffm. in Linnaea 43:133. 1881. Pseudoeugenia Scortech. in Journ. Bot. 23:153. 1885. Oxydiastrum Niedenzu, in Engl. & Pranti, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 37:105. 1893. Chloromyrtus Pierre, in Bull. Soc. Linn. Paris, n. ser. 71. 1898.
Description Shrubs or trees. Flowers tetramerous, in axillary or lateral racemes, fascicles or glomerules, rarely solitary or cymose. Receptacle scarcely or not produced above the ovary. Sepals free, imbricate, the two inner mostly distinctly larger than the two outer, persistent. Petals free, often caducous. Stamens numerous; filaments incurved in the bud; anthers dorsifixed, opening with longitudinal slits. Ovary 2 (-3-) -celled, the cells several- to many-ovulate, sometimes only 2-ovulate. Berry globose or ellipsoid, mostly 1-seeded, rarely few-seeded. Embryo homogeneous, the radicle broadly adnate to the wholly connate cotyledons, or sometimes cotyledons with a short split between them (or in one species in Panama, also aberrant by its cymose inflorescence, with cotyledons free and radicle short but distinct).
Habit Shrubs or trees
Distribution Species numerous, probably more than 1000, in the tropics and subtropics, chiefly in America.
Note The genus sometimes is united with Syzygiurn Gaertn., and then a few hundred additional species must be added.
Key la. Inflorescence cymose, 1- to 7-flowered; cotyledons free. - 3. E. FRAGRANS b. Inflorescence various, but never cymose; cotyledons connate .------------ - 2 2a. Berry distinctly ribbed ..............................3 b. Berry sm ooth or at most faintly ribbed ............................... ........... ....... 4 3a. Leaves ovate; flowers solitary in the axils of bracts at the base of young shoots, or in fascicles of 4-8, the pedicels 1.5 cm. long or more; berry depressed-globose, 2.5-3.0 cm. in diameter ................................. 2. E. UNIFLORA b. Leaves elliptical; flowers in short racemes, the pedicels 4-8 mm. long; berry obovate-oblong, up to 1.5 cm. long .----------------------------- 17. E. OCTOPLEURA 4a. Leaves linear, less than 5 mm. wide; flowers solitary, on long slender pedicels- ....................................................... .. 1. E. ALFAROANA b. Leaves broader, about 1 cm. wide or more; flowers glomerate, fasciculate, or racemose. - ----------- 5 5 a. Flowers precocious, fasciculate, the pedicels white-pilose, the ovary densely puberulous; leaves small, about 5 cm. long, the marginal nerve at some distance from the margin .------------------------------------------..5. E. NESIOTICA b. Flowers present at the same time as fully developed leaves ...-..........---------- - 6 6a. Leaves small, mostly less than 5 cm. long, subsessile if up to 6 cm. long .--------- 7 b. Leaves larger, as a rule more than 5 cm. long, or definitely petiolate if shorter --------------------------------------------------9 7a. Flowers glomerate; leaves almost sessile, oblong to lanceolate .------------------ 6. E. PITTIERI b. Flowers in fascicles or in abbreviated racemes, long-pedicellate ..............................................8 8a. Inflorescence an abbreviated 1- to 4-flowered raceme; the pedicels 4-10 mm. long; leaves oblong or lanceolate-oblong .-------------------------------- 7. E. CHEPENSIS b. Inflorescence an axillary 6- to 15-flowered fascicle, the pedicels 4-6 mm. long; leaves elliptical ..................................................... .. 8. E. CO STAR ICEN SIS 9a. Leaves lanceolate, long-acuminate and mucronate, sparsely white-pilose to glabrescent on both sides, up to 7 cm. long; inflorescence and ovary pubescent; flowers racemose ..................................................... 4. E. BIFLORA b. Leaves elliptical or oblong ..---................. ............................... . 10 lOa. Twigs glabrous or puberulous; leaves and ovary always glabrous (see also E. salamancana, no. 15) ........................................................... 11 b. Young twigs densely pubescent with patent hairs; leaves remaining long- pubescent or sericeous at least beneath; ovary pubescent or glabrous. - --.................17 lla. Flowers distinctly racemose (sometimes partly solitary), the rachis much longer than the pedicels; leaves acuminate . --12 b. Flowers fasciculate or in more or less abbreviated racemes: leaves obovate, rounded or obtuse and scarcely acuminate at the apex ........................................................... 13 12a. Flowers small, the petals about 3 mm. long; rachis and pedicels very slender ........................................................... 11. E. OERSTEDEANA b. Flowers larger, the petals about 6 mm. long; plant more robust in all parts. ............................I .... .......................... I . E. COLORADEN SIS 13a. Leaves very large, 20-25 cm. long ................ 12. E. sp. b. Leaves much smaller ............................ 14 14a. Flowers minute, the sepals about 1 mm. long, the petals about 3 mm. long; inflorescence an abbreviated raceme with slender rachis and pedicels, rarely partly fasciculate ................. ..... ........................................... . 13. E. ACAPULCENSIS b. Flowers larger, the petals 5-7 mm. long; inflorescence more robust ................................................. 15 15a. Leaves obovate, rounded, obtuse or subtruncate at the apex; inflorescence poorly known but possibly cymose, 3-flowered (but embryo homo- geneous) . ........... ........................................ ..................................................... 14. E. H IRAEIFOLIA b. Leaves elliptical, ovate or oblong .......................... 16 1 6a. Sepals very short, about 1 mm. long, even in the bud much shorter than the petals ......... ...................................................................................... 16. E. TAPACUM ENSIS b. Sepals larger, unequal, 3-5 mm. long, covering the petals in the bud. 18. E. AUSTIN-SMITHII 17a. Leaves sericeous beneath with a shining golden, eventually fading indumentum; flowers pedicellate ................................................................. 19. E. CHRYSOPHYLLUM b. Leaves pubescent with spreading hairs, glabrescent or glabrous; twigs loosely pubescent ........................ 18 1 8a. Leaves coriaceous, the nerves indistinct and the venation obsolete, glabrous; inflorescence and flowers poorly known .------------------------------------ 15. E. SALAMANCANA b. Leaves membranaceous, the nerves distinct, glabrous .----------------------------------------- 19 19a. Flowers small, sessile or nearly so, glomerate, the sepals not more than 1 mm. long ......................................... 9. E. ORIGANOIDES b. Flowers larger, long-pedicellate (up to 1 cm.), fasciculate, the sepals up to 4 mm. long ................... ...... . 20. E. OREINOMA
Note The most common species are E. acapulcensis and E. origanoides which are probably to be found in all provinces. The first species is glabrous and easily recognizable by its minute flowers in slender abbreviated racemes; the second species is pubescent and has equally small but glomerate flowers. E. biflora, particularly frequent on Taboga Island but probably scattered throughout the country, has narrowly lanceolate leaves and pubescent few-flowered racemes. E. fragrans is particularly frequent in the Chiriqui region, and is the only species with a dichot- omously branched inflorescence. E. oerstedeana and E. coloradensis, both with flowers in long glabrous racemes, E. chepensis, with small leaves and flowers in abbreviated, nearly glabrous racemes, and E. nesiotica, with pubescent, fasciculate, precocious flowers and small leaves, are most common in the Canal Zone. All other species have been collected but once or twice, some in recent years and others in the last century.
 
 
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