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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 1/14/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 1/14/2013)
Genus COCCOLOBA P. Br. ex L.
PlaceOfPublication Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1007, 1367. 1759.
Reference Taxon 3:114, 156, 233. 1954, nom. conserv. Howard, Jour. Arnold Arb. 40:176-220. 1959.
Synonym Guaiabara Miller, Gard. Dict. ed. 4. 2. 1754. Coccolobis P. Br. Civ. & Nat. Hist. Jam. 209. p1. 14, f. 3. 1756.
Description Shrubs or trees, trees with scrambling branches, or lianas; branches terete or stout, commonly strongly striate, short shoots commonly developed laterally, or the terminal shoots of limited growth becoming long shoots, pith solid or the stem hollow except at the nodes; nodes commonly swollen; ocreae characteristically developed, sheathing at first, becoming split along one or two sides, the basal portion commonly coriaceous and persistent, the apical portion commonly mem- branaceous and deciduous or entirely membranaceous and deciduous, glabrous, puberulent or silky pubescent; leaves alternate, persistent or deciduous, membrana- ceous, chartaceous or coriaceous, on deciduous trees the young leaves usually turning black on drying, varying considerably in size on the same shoots, the leaves of adventitious or juvenile shoots commonly much larger and frequently of dif- ferent shape from those of normal shoots; the petiole borne at the base of, or well above the base of, the ocrea, petioles slender to stout, commonly canaliculate above, glabrous to puberulent or pubescent; leaf blades with margins flat to slightly recurved, straight or undulate, midrib commonly keeled above and often below, primary veins straight to the margin or branched near the margin becoming reticulate, or arcuate and anastomosing, or arcuate and bifurcate-anastomosing, the secondary venation parallel or reticulate, conspicuous to obscure, leaf surface glabrous, puberulent or pilose becoming glabrate, pubescence often mixed with glandular-like bodies which are either hair bases or resinous excretions from the stomata or rarely multicellular glands; inflorescence terminal or terminal on lateral shoots, paniculate, racemose or spicate, the peduncle usually short; basal ocrea present, flowers functionally unisexual, the staminate flowers borne in clusters of 2-7, the pistillate flowers usually borne singly at each nodule on the rachis, rachis swollen at each flower cluster or terete, flowering clusters distinct or confluent, subtended by a small bract and one or more membranaceous ocreolae, ocreolae usually covering the flower bud and splitting regularly or irregularly forming a membranaceous collar or sheath, or one, two or more appendages, pedicels short or well developed, equaling or exceeding the ocreolae, hypanthium well developed or slight, perianth lobes usually 5, rarely to 7 in number, imbricate in bud, often reflexed at maturity, stamens usually 8, functional stamens exserted, non-functional stamens included, filaments commonly flared at the base and more or less united, functional pistil exserted, the non-functional pistil included, ovary strongly trigonous, glabrous, functional styles 3, or if 2 or 1 the non-functional styles filamentous, stigmatic surface often expanded; hypanthium and perianth lobes expanding in fruit, or only the perianth lobes expanding to cover the achene, fruiting hypanthium- when fresh commonly brightly colored and fleshy, usually astringent to taste, occasionally strongly fibrous; the achene trigonous in outline, black, brown or tan in color, shiny or dull, the outer wall hard, the inner layer papery, seed with ruminate endosperm, the major lobes 3, the minor lobes and involutions numerous, the embryo centrally located, the cotyledons orbicular, flat, rarely folded or contorted, the radicle small and terete.
Habit Shrub tree
Habit lianas
Note Type: Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (Polygonum uvifera L.), probably from Jamaica.
Key a. Petioles arising from well above the base of ocrea, the diameter of the leaf-scar smaller than the distance to the base of the ocrea. b. Inflorescence paniculate. c. Inflorescence few branched; leaf base rounded or cordate; fruit spherical, rounded at the base. - .- -1. C. LASSERI cc. Inflorescence many branched; leaf blade acute at the base, decur- rent on the petiole; fruit oval, stalked at the base. . 2. C. TUERCKHEIMII bb. Inflorescence racemose or spicate. d. Inflorescence racemose; the fruits clearly stalked. -3. C. CORONATA dd. Inflorescence spicate; the fruits essentially sessile. . 4. C. OBOVATA aa. Petioles arising from the base of the ocrea, the diameter of the leaf-scar greater than the distance from the base of the ocrea. f. Inflorescence racemose. g. Lianas; leaves usually oblong-elliptic and bullate between the veins. 5. C. PARIMENSIS gg. Trees or shrubs; the branches not climbing. h. Leaves as broad as or broader than long, orbicular to broadly oblong, apex rounded to emarginate; fruit obpyriform, obtuse and rounded at the apex, the perianth lobes imbricate. . 6. C. UVIFERA hh. Leaves longer than broad. i. Foliar ocrea 3-5 cm. long, membranaceous or chartaceous, silky pubescent; fruit coronate at the apex, the crown sur- rounded by the distinct perianth lobes. -7. C. MANZANILLENSIS ii. Foliar ocrea 1-2 cm. long, coriaceous or if chartaceous not silky pubescent; fruit not coronate, the perianth lobes imbri- cate, covering at least the upper half of the achene. j. Inflorescence strongly sulcate or striate, the flower clusters closely associated and not appearing interrupted, rachis and bracts, ocreolae and perianth densely puberulent; mature fruit with perianth lobes distinct to the base. -8. C. DARIENENSIS jj. Inflorescence terete, not noticeably sulcate or striate, the flower clusters clearly distinct and separate on the axis, rachis and flowers scarcely puberulent or glabrous. k. Leaves narrowly oblong, thick coriaceous, drying pale green or tan, the ultimate venation indistinct; fruit spherical, the perianth lobes surrounding the upper half of the achene -9. C. PADIFORMIS kk. Leaves elliptic to elliptic-oblong, thin coriaceous, drying dark green or black, the ultimate venation clearly distinct and reticulate; fruit ovoid, the apex obtuse or acute, the perianth lobes distinct to the base, hypan- thium scarcely evident. -10. C. LEHMANNII ff. Inflorescence spicate, the pedicels shorter than the ocreolae and the bracts in flower and fruit or if protruding beyond the ocreolae the visible portion less than the diameter of the inflorescence axis; perianth lobes expanding and covering at least the upper half of the mature achene. 1. Leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, the apex acuminate; inflores- cence axis swollen at the flower clusters and tapering below each cluster. -- 11. C. ACUMINATA 11. Leaves oval to orbicular, the apex rounded or emarginate; the inflorescence axis of uniform thickness not expanded at each flower cluster.-. 12. C. CARACASANA
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