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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/24/2012)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 10/24/2012)
Genus GEONOMA Wilid.
PlaceOfPublication Mem. Acad. Sci. Berlin 1804:37.
Description Small unarmed monoecious palms, either bushes or low trees, trunks ringed and often arundinaceous: leaves pinnate, pinnatisect or at least pinnately veined: spadices interfoliar or infrafoliar, either a simple spike or somewhat branched; spathe not cymba-like: flowers partially or deeply immersed in the rachilla or rachis, morphologically 1 pistillate between 2 staminates but this disposition not always the pattern, in which case the upper part of the rachilla may be almost or quite uniformly staminate; floral envelopes 6 in two series, calyx and corolla, the parts or lobes- usually imbricate in the bud except that the corolla parts of the staminate flowers are commonly valvate; stamens 6, as also the staminodes in the pistillate flower, the filaments in both cases united into a dentate or lobed tube that, in connection with the separated spreading anther-cells, constitutes the par- ticular-mark of the genus; ovary sitting in a free disk or cushion, 3-loculed, style lateral or near base, stigmas 3, 1 or 2 locules abortive: fruit a very small drupe- like 1-seeded globular or ovoid or somewhat pyriform body, the mesocarp more or less fleshy and only seldom edible; seed with basal hilum, albumen equable.
Distribution Well toward 200 species from Mexico -and Hispaniola to Peru, Bolivia and Brazil; many species in the Amazon region, more than 60 in Colombia.
Note Woods palms of minor size. The genus was founded on two species of Venezuela. Genus Calyptrogyne may be represented in Panama but materials are not yet sufficient to work out the case. It differs from Geonoia in the sagittate basifixed anthers, the anther-cells not discrete or separated on minute pedicels, style central rather than lateral or sub-basal, fruit 3 -loculed, often obovoid. Calyptrogyne is a small group native in Mexico, Central America, parts of South America. They are arundinaceous small palms; arboreous plants of the Antilles sometimes referred to the genus are properly -Calyptronoma. Perhaps some of the species described in Geonoma may be determined as Calyptrogyne when flowers and mature fruits are better known.

a. Spadix or flower-cluster simple, on a long slender peduncle ascending from a lower axil or near the ground, unbra-nched, comprised of either 1 straight thin spike or of a few straight spikes standing finger-like at top of peduncle, the cluster lacking an elongated rachis or axis; spathe of I or 2 narrow sheaths on peduncle.

b. Spike 1 on the peduncle, strictly terminal.

c. Leaf-blade habitually entire (of one piece) although bilobed at apex or sometimes its base somewhat and irregularly split or pin- natisect into more or less separate parts: trunk very short, or little-noticeable above the ground.

d. Terminal lobes of leaf straight 1. G. DECURRENS

dd. Terminal lobes curved toward the top or falcate -2. G. OBOVATA

cc. Leaf-blade habitually pinnate, with distinct separate pair or pairs of pinnae (G. obovata is not to be sought here): trunk usually evident. d. Pinnae long (40-50 cm.), straight to apex, not tailed, often very narrow, strongly costate, gray-green: fruit large, 15 mm. or more long - 3. G. COSTATIFRONS

dd. Pinnae otherwise: fruit 12 mm. or less long.

e. Apex of pinna a very slender cauda or tail, and abruptly nar- rowed; pinnae short (25 cm. or less) - 4. G. ALLENII

ee. Apex of pinna curved or falcate, not caudate; pinnae 30 cm. or more long. f. Pairs of pinnae 1 or 2, with rachis below the terminal part vacant for 10 or 12 cm. - 5. G. CONDENSATA ff. Pairs of pinnae several or many and close together- - 6. G. PROCUMBENS

bb. Spikes few or several attached at apex of slender peduncle and radi- ating or spreading therefrom, the axis of the cluster very short or none ... . 7. G. SIMPLICIFRONS

aa. Spadix compound, with branches extending from a central, rachis, the peduncle short and spreading from the trunk in an upper axil; spathe cymba-like at base of stout peduncle.

b. Rachillae short, 10 cm. or less long, simple or once-forked.

c. Pinnae few., these and the terminal lobes 8-12 cm. broad, the tips caudate - - _. 8. G. CONGESTA

cc. Pinnae many pairs, 5 cm. or less broad, the tips acute or acumi- nate -------9. G. FERRUGINEA

bb. Rachillae slender, 20-30 cm. long, drooping in a much-branched very compound cluster: leaf-blade divaricately pinnate- 10. G. BINERVIA

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