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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 676. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: YAS1N J. NASIR
General/Distribution: A genus of c. 400 species, mainly distributed in the temperate zone of N. Hemisphere, but also in the tropics. Represented in Pakistan by 22 species. The large flowered perennials are difficult to key out satisfactorily unless there is ample information on the nature of the underground parts, flower colour, shape and size of the leaves and the fruits. In the key that follows, I have used the following terminology: segments for primary division of leaves; lobes for secondary division. The sepal length excludes the awn. The beak length (in fruit) excludes the styles.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Species indet. or little known.

21. Geranium Sp.

Hispar Vy., glacier, left bank, Turmun Makerum, 11-11,500', R.S. Russell 1223 (BM).

Rhizome horizontal, stem ascending, slender. Leaves suborbicular with 7 segments. Segments not exceeding 24 mm in length, lobes blunt, obtuse, petiole of lower cauline leaves long and slender, lamina pilose; stipule 8 mm long. Peduncle 11.5 cm long, 2-flowered; glandular hairy; bract lanceolate, largest 7 mm long. Flowers 2, sessile. Petal base ciliate.

The plant specimen resembles in facies Geranium collinum but has very short blunt and obtuse leaf segment lobes and flowers that are almost sessile. More plant material of this Geranium species is required for further study.

Geranium pinetophilum R. Knuth. Notizbl. 14.352.1939.

Type: Astor Dist. near Nanga Parbat, Rakhiot Valley, Troll 7637 (B).

Knuth’s material was destroyed in the Berlin fire. The species appears to be related to Geranium pretense ssp. stewartianum but differs in the lighter coloured flower, which Knuth states to be pink-white with dark nerves. May also be allied to Geranium himalayense.


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Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves usually alternate, stipulate, variously divided. Peduncles (1-) 2-flowered. Flowers often showy, regular, usually 5-merous. Petals alternating with 5 nectiferous glands. Stamens (5-) 10, staminodes occasional. Carpels usually 5, adnate, separating septifragally from the central axis at maturity. Ovary 5-lobed. Fruit schizocarpic, of 5 mericarps which remain attached to an elastically coiling stylar axis upwards; mericarps without apical pits.

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1 Annuals, rarely biennials or perennials, with flowers up to 1 cm broad (2)
+ Perennials with flowers (1.5)-2-4 cm broad (9)
2 (1) Calyx not angled or constricted at the apex. Pedicel uniformly pubescent or subglandular (3)
+ Calyx angled, constricted at the apex; glabrous. Pedicel unilaterally hirsute 1 Geranium lucidum
3 (2) Stem straggling or procumbent. Leaves sub orbicular to reniform, lobes crenate or not. Sepal awn 0.5-1.5 (-2) mm long (4)
+ Stem erect. Leaves trisect, 3-5-gonal into pinnatipartite segments. Sepals awn c. 2 mm long 2 Geranium robertianum
4 (3) Petals clearly exceeding the sepals. Mericarps glabrous to puberulous (5)
+ Petals equal to or barely exceeding the sepals. Mericarps glandular pubescent or appressed pubescent (6)
5 (4) Mericarps 1.5-2 mm long, transversely rugose, with shallow and glabrous ridges 3 Geranium ocellatum
+ Mericarps 3 mm long, deep furrowed, puberulous on the outer ridge 4 Geranium mascatense
6 (4) Leaves palmatifid or -partite into 3-7-segments (7)
+ Leaves orbicular-reniform, crenate. Seeds prominently reticulate 5 Geranium rotundifolium
7 (6) Sepals 5-6 mm long. Beak 10-13 mm long (8)
+ Sepals 1.5-3 mm long. Beak 6-8 mm long 6 Geranium pusillum
8 (7) Leaf segments narrow rhomboid-acute. Inflorescence ± diffuse. Peduncle usually 1 flowered. Sepal awn 1-2 mm 7 Geranium sibiricum
+ Leaf segments broad rhomboid-obtuse-acute. Inflorescence not diffuse. Peduncle usually 2-flowered. Sepal awn up to 1 mm 8 Geranium nepalense
9 (1) Rhizome tuberous. Petals emarginate-retuse (10)
+ Rhizome elongated. Petals obtuse, sometimes retuse (11)
10 (9) Plants up to 20 (-25) cm tall. Petals 8-11 mm long. Filaments pubescent. Beak c. 1.2 cm long 10 Geranium charlesii
+ Plants 30-60 cm tall. Petals 1.3-1.5 cm long. Filaments dense long ciliate. Beak c. 2.5 cm long 9 Geranium tuberaria
11 (9) Aerial stem much reduced or absent
+ Aerial stem (s) well developed, up to 5 in number (12)
12 (11) Stipules 2-14 mm long, lanceolate to lanceolate-subulate (13)
+ Stipules usually 10-20 mm long, elliptic-obtuse or oblong 11 Geranium wallichianum
13 (12) Basal part of filaments ciliate, sometimes pubescent. Stigmas up to 4 mm long (14)
+ Upper 2/3rd of filaments dense villous. Stigmas c. 5 mm long 12 Geranium lambertii
14 (13) Leaf segment lobes 6-11 (-13), acutish to acuminate. Flowers dark blue-purple
+ Leaf segment lobes 5-7 (-9), obtuse to acute. Flowers white, pink, lilac, mauve or pink purple (15)
15 (14) Stem diffuse-ascending. Rhizome ± slender. Pedicels long, (8-) 12-47 (-54) mm, spreading recurved (16)
+ Stem erect-ascending, rhizome stout. Pedicel short, 9-30 mm long, deflexed in fruit 17 Geranium himalayense
16 (15) Leaves not dissected deeply, the segments more than 5 mm broad (17)
+ Leaves much dissected, the segments narrow, 4-5 mm broad, small 18 Geranium pamiricum
17 (16) Leaf segment lobes short and bluntly obtuse. Peduncle 2-flowered; mature flowers ± sessile
+ Leaf segment lobes acute to obtuse. Peduncle with both flowers pedicellate (18)
18 (17) Petal base ciliate (19)
+ Petal base pubescent on the adaxial surface 20 Geranium swatense
19 (18) Leaves 5-angled. Flowers pink. Sepal awn 2-4 mm. Seed ± 3 mm long (20)
+ Leaves orbicular-angled, 5-7-palmati-partite. Flowers lilac - rose to sometimes white. Sepal awn 1-2 mm long. Seed c. 2.5 mm long 19 Geranium collinum
20 (19) Pedicels and peduncles with stiff erect glandular hairs. Leaves not membranous. Stipules often 2-fid 13 Geranium rubifolium
+ Pedicels and peduncles appressed pubescent (rarely sparse glandular). Leaves membranous. Stipules rarely 2-fid 14 Geranium rectum

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