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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 676. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: YAS1N J. NASIR
General/Distribution: A genus of c. 400 species, mainly distributed in the temperate zone of N. Hemisphere, but also in the tropics. Represented in Pakistan by 22 species. The large flowered perennials are difficult to key out satisfactorily unless there is ample information on the nature of the underground parts, flower colour, shape and size of the leaves and the fruits. In the key that follows, I have used the following terminology: segments for primary division of leaves; lobes for secondary division. The sepal length excludes the awn. The beak length (in fruit) excludes the styles.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Species indet. or little known.

21. Geranium Sp.

Hispar Vy., glacier, left bank, Turmun Makerum, 11-11,500', R.S. Russell 1223 (BM).

Rhizome horizontal, stem ascending, slender. Leaves suborbicular with 7 segments. Segments not exceeding 24 mm in length, lobes blunt, obtuse, petiole of lower cauline leaves long and slender, lamina pilose; stipule 8 mm long. Peduncle 11.5 cm long, 2-flowered; glandular hairy; bract lanceolate, largest 7 mm long. Flowers 2, sessile. Petal base ciliate.

The plant specimen resembles in facies Geranium collinum but has very short blunt and obtuse leaf segment lobes and flowers that are almost sessile. More plant material of this Geranium species is required for further study.

Geranium pinetophilum R. Knuth. Notizbl. 14.352.1939.

Type: Astor Dist. near Nanga Parbat, Rakhiot Valley, Troll 7637 (B).

Knuth’s material was destroyed in the Berlin fire. The species appears to be related to Geranium pretense ssp. stewartianum but differs in the lighter coloured flower, which Knuth states to be pink-white with dark nerves. May also be allied to Geranium himalayense.


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Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves usually alternate, stipulate, variously divided. Peduncles (1-) 2-flowered. Flowers often showy, regular, usually 5-merous. Petals alternating with 5 nectiferous glands. Stamens (5-) 10, staminodes occasional. Carpels usually 5, adnate, separating septifragally from the central axis at maturity. Ovary 5-lobed. Fruit schizocarpic, of 5 mericarps which remain attached to an elastically coiling stylar axis upwards; mericarps without apical pits.

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1.Annuals, rarely biennials or perennials, with flowers up to 1 cm broad
2.Calyx angled, constricted at the apex; glabrous. Pedicel unilaterally hirsute
Geranium lucidum
2.Calyx not angled or constricted at the apex. Pedicel uniformly pubescent or subglandular
3.Stem erect. Leaves trisect, 3-5-gonal into pinnatipartite segments. Sepals awn c. 2 mm long
Geranium robertianum
3.Stem straggling or procumbent. Leaves sub orbicular to reniform, lobes crenate or not. Sepal awn 0.5-1.5 (-2) mm long
4.Petals clearly exceeding the sepals. Mericarps glabrous to puberulous
5.Mericarps 1.5-2 mm long, transversely rugose, with shallow and glabrous ridges
Geranium ocellatum
5.Mericarps 3 mm long, deep furrowed, puberulous on the outer ridge
Geranium mascatense
4.Petals equal to or barely exceeding the sepals. Mericarps glandular pubescent or appressed pubescent
6.Leaves orbicular-reniform, crenate. Seeds prominently reticulate
Geranium rotundifolium
6.Leaves palmatifid or -partite into 3-7-segments
7.Sepals 1.5-3 mm long. Beak 6-8 mm long
Geranium pusillum
7.Sepals 5-6 mm long. Beak 10-13 mm long
8.Leaf segments narrow rhomboid-acute. Inflorescence ± diffuse. Peduncle usually 1 flowered. Sepal awn 1-2 mm
Geranium sibiricum
8.Leaf segments broad rhomboid-obtuse-acute. Inflorescence not diffuse. Peduncle usually 2-flowered. Sepal awn up to 1 mm
Geranium nepalense
1.Perennials with flowers (1.5)-2-4 cm broad
9.Rhizome tuberous. Petals emarginate-retuse
10.Plants 30-60 cm tall. Petals 1.3-1.5 cm long. Filaments dense long ciliate. Beak c. 2.5 cm long
Geranium tuberaria
10.Plants up to 20 (-25) cm tall. Petals 8-11 mm long. Filaments pubescent. Beak c. 1.2 cm long
Geranium charlesii
9.Rhizome elongated. Petals obtuse, sometimes retuse
11.Aerial stem much reduced or absent
11.Aerial stem (s) well developed, up to 5 in number
12.Stipules usually 10-20 mm long, elliptic-obtuse or oblong
Geranium wallichianum
12.Stipules 2-14 mm long, lanceolate to lanceolate-subulate
13.Upper 2/3rd of filaments dense villous. Stigmas c. 5 mm long
Geranium lambertii
13.Basal part of filaments ciliate, sometimes pubescent. Stigmas up to 4 mm long
14.Leaf segment lobes 6-11 (-13), acutish to acuminate. Flowers dark blue-purple
14.Leaf segment lobes 5-7 (-9), obtuse to acute. Flowers white, pink, lilac, mauve or pink purple
15.Stem erect-ascending, rhizome stout. Pedicel short, 9-30 mm long, deflexed in fruit
Geranium himalayense
15.Stem diffuse-ascending. Rhizome ± slender. Pedicels long, (8-) 12-47 (-54) mm, spreading recurved
16.Leaves much dissected, the segments narrow, 4-5 mm broad, small
Geranium pamiricum
16.Leaves not dissected deeply, the segments more than 5 mm broad
17.Leaf segment lobes short and bluntly obtuse. Peduncle 2-flowered; mature flowers ± sessile
17.Leaf segment lobes acute to obtuse. Peduncle with both flowers pedicellate
18.Petal base pubescent on the adaxial surface
Geranium swatense
18.Petal base ciliate
19.Leaves orbicular-angled, 5-7-palmati-partite. Flowers lilac - rose to sometimes white. Sepal awn 1-2 mm long. Seed c. 2.5 mm long
Geranium collinum
19.Leaves 5-angled. Flowers pink. Sepal awn 2-4 mm. Seed ± 3 mm long
20.Pedicels and peduncles with stiff erect glandular hairs. Leaves not membranous. Stipules often 2-fid
Geranium rubifolium
20.Pedicels and peduncles appressed pubescent (rarely sparse glandular). Leaves membranous. Stipules rarely 2-fid
Geranium rectum

Lower Taxa
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