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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 142. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: YASIN J. NASIR
General/Distribution: c. 500 species in the N. Temperate zone, inhabiting the mountainous regions of Europe (Alps, Carpathians, Pyrenees), The Himalaya and S.W. China. Represented in Pakistan and adjoining areas by 23 species.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Species incorrectly or doubtfully recorded from Kashmir

Primula primulina (Spreng.) Hara in J. Japan, Bot. 37:99.1962.

Androsace primulina Sprengel, Syst. Veget. ed. 16(4)2. Cur. post. 57.1827; Primula pusilla Wall. in Roxb. Fl. Ind. (Carey ed.) 2:22.1824, non Goldie 1882.

R.R. Stewart (Annot. Cat. Fl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 540. 1972) lists this species, based on a Schlagintweit collection from the Baltoro and Mustagh glaciers in the Karakorams. I have not seen the above mentioned specimen. Hu Chi Ming (pers. commun.) who is revising the family for the flora of China records the species from S. Sinkiang and S. Tibet. The distribution of the species extends from Kumaon and eastwards to Bhutan and Sikkim.

Species indet.

Primula sp.: D-4 On hill above Residency, Ziarat, Baluchistan, M.A. Siddiqi 2047 (RAW).

No Primula is reported from Baluchistan and this gathering may be from a cultivated source. The plant in facies, the pubescent nature, large calyx and pollen grains is very similar to the N. Iranian Primula macrocalyx Bunge. Fedorov (1952, p. 148) mentions this species’ to be ornamental as well. More collection and information regarding this plant is desirable for further investigation. Fl. Per.: May.


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Perennial herbs possessing rhizomes or stolons. Leaves usually in basal rosettes, sometimes cauline, entire to variously incised or lobed, revolute, involute or conduplicate in bud. Scape usually present and elongating after anthesis. Flowers 5-merous, umbellate or in capitate heads, sometimes solitary or few by reduction, often heterostylous. Calyx persistent. Corolla salver-shaped or infundibuliform to sometimes ± campanulate; the tube straight and much exceeding the calyx, lobes entire or 2-fid. Stamens 5, included; anthers narrow oblong, obtuse, in pin-eyed flowers attached half way up the tube and in thrum-eyed ones near the throat of the corolla. Ovary superior, with indefinite ovules on a free central placentum. Style slender, stigma capitate and posessing prominent papillae in pin-eyed flowers. Capsule globose to tubular-cylindrical. Dehiscence by 5-10 apical teeth or irregular. Seeds many, ovoid-angular to subglobose or compressed dorsally, papillose, vesiculose or reticulate-vesiculose, sometimes ends flanged.

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1 Flowers erect. Corolla salver to infundibuliform. Calyx lobes not gland-tipped (2)
+ Flowers reflexed or nodding. Corolla ± campanulate. Calyx lobes gland-tipped 22 Primula reidii
2 (1) Flowers yellow, creamy-yellow, white or pinkish (3)
+ Flowers pink, mauve, pink-purple or blue (5)
3 (2) Plants erect, fairly robust. Flowers umbellate (4)
+ Plants weak stemmed and straggling. Leaves cauline. Flowers in superposed whorls of 2-5 1 Primula floribunda
4 (3) Bracts auricled at the base. Flowers white or pinkish. Corolla lobes obcordate, retuse to emarginate. Leaves efarinose 16 Primula involucrata
+ Bracts not auricled towards the base. Flowers yellow. Corolla lobes entire to slightly retuse. Leaves farinose on the undersurface 4 Primula duthieana
5 (2) Leaves orbicular, reniform, subcordate or oblong to ovate-oblong (6)
+ Leaves elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, elliptic-ovate or spathulate (7)
6 (5) Plants scapose. Lamina oblong to ovate-oblong. Capsule membranous, splitting irregularly 2 Primula pulchra
+ Plants escapose. Lamina orbicular-reniform, subcordate to orbicular-oblong. Capsule ± firm, dehiscing by 5 apical teeth 6 Primula clarkei
7 (5) Bracts patent, sometimes flexuose in fruit (8)
+ Bracts reflexed in fruit 12 Primula algida
8 (7) Plants small and of a carpet forming habit (9)
+ Plants usually not small or of a carpet-like habit (10)
9 (8) Leaves lanceolate, denticulate to serrulate, farinose 18 Primula minutissima
+ Leaves spathulate, crenulate, efarinose 19 Primula reptans
10 (8) Capsule globose to ovoid or oblong, ± included in the calyx (11)
+ Capsule tubular cylindrical, equalling or much exceeding the calyx (18)
11 (10) Capsule ovoid to subglobose (12)
+ Capsule oblong 5 Primula obtusifolia
12 (11) Leaves and calyx not so. Plants summer flowering and of various alpine habitats, from altitudes 2000-5400 m (13)
+ Leaves strap shaped. Calyx cupular. Plants winter flowering and frequenting waterfalls up to an altitude of 1900 m 17 Primula inayatii
13 (12) Flowers up to 12 in number, in lax umbels. Calyx not chartaceous in fruit (14)
+ Flowers many, in dense umbellate heads. Calyx ± chartaceous in fruit 20 Primula denticulata
14 (13) Leaves not membranous, rarely farinose. Scape solitary (15)
+ Leaves membranous, white farinose on the undersurface. Scape 1 (-3) in number 13 Primula hazarica
15 (14) Leaves glabrous (16)
+ Leaves pubescent to tomentose on the under surface 21 Primula denticuloides
16 (15) Leaves synanthus, coarse and irregularly dentate or erose-dentate (17)
+ Leaves fully developed only after anthesis, denticulate or erose-denticulate 8 Primula rosea
17 (16) Flowers violet-pink to purplish-blue. Bracts 8-12 mm long 7 Primula elliptica
+ Flowers pink. Bracts 4.5-7 mm long 9 Primula warshenewskiana
18 (10) Bracts up to 9 mm long, saccate at the base. Capsule narrow cylindric (19)
+ Bracts 10-20 mm long, not saccate. Capsule broad cylindric 3 Primula macrophylla
19 (18) Plants usually farinose. Petiole ± flat and not distinct. Calyx not glandular-punctate (20)
+ Plants efarinose. Petiole usually narrow and fairly distinct. Calyx glandular-punctate (21)
20 (19) Bracts ovate-oblong or narrow ovate. Pedicel up to 2.5 mm long in fruit 11 Primula capitellata
+ Bracts lanceolate to linear-lanceolate. Pedicel 1-6 mm long in fruit 10 Primula schlagintweitiana
21 (19) Leaf lamina abruptly passing in to the petiole Scape 1-4-flowered. Calyx and bracts sparse glandular-punctate 14 Primula nutans
+ Leaf lamina gradually tapering in to the petiole. Scape 2-7-flowered. Calyx and bracts dense glandular punctate 15 Primula pamirica

Lower Taxa
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