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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/12/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 9/12/2013)
Genus Psychotria L.
PlaceOfPublication Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 929, 1122, 1364. 1759.
Note Nomen conserv. TYPE: P. asiatica L.
Synonym Psychotrophum P. Br., Civ. Nat. Hist. Jam. 160. 1756. Nomen rejic. Myristiphyllum P. Br., Civ. Nat. Hist. Jam. 152. 1756. Nomen rejic. Nonatelia Aubl., Hist. P1. Guiane 182. 1775. TYPE: N. officinalis Aubl. Mapouria Aubl., Hist. P1. Guiane 1: 175. 1775. TYPE: M. guianensis Aubl. Ronabea Aubl., Hist. P1. Guiane 1: 154. 1775. TYPE: R. latifolia Aubl.
Description Subshrubs, shrubs or trees, rarely scandent, occasionally epiphytic. Leaves rarely sessile, opposite; stipules free or connate, usually caducous. Inf orescences usually terminal, often paniculate, occasionally aggregated into heads; bracts usually persistent, occasionally involucrate; bracteoles usually present, often de- ciduous. Flowers mostly small, (4-)5(-8)-merous, bisexual, often heterostylous, the hypanthium small, the calycine cup usually short, occasionally with small glands within, the lobes or teeth absent or present, usually 5; corolla usually white or yellow, the tube short, the lobes valvate in the bud, occasionally galeate; stamens included or exserted, the anthers usually narrowly oblong, the filaments variously inserted in the corolla tube; ovarian disc usually cushion shaped, the style solitary, slender, the stigmas 2(4-5), the ovary 2(4-5)-celled, the septum thick, the ovules 1 per locule, attached basally. Fruits fleshy, the flesh usually soon deciduous exposing 2 pyrenes, the endocarp of the pyrene ventrally flat or grooved, dorsally costate or ecostate, the testa thin, the albumen hard, sometimes ruminate.
Habit Subshrubs, shrubs or trees
Distribution well distributed throughout the warmer parts of the world.
Note It is the largest genus of the Rubiaceae with about 800 species. It is the largest genus of the family in Panama. The Panamanian species with few exceptions sort into 2 genera without dif- ficulty. Although from a worldwide viewpoint there is much to support the in- corporation of Cephaelis into Psychotria as was done by Steyermark (1974), I maintain them as separate genera. The frequent absence of stipules on individual herbarium sheets represents a major difficulty in preparing and using a key. Stipules are of great diagnostic importance in the Rubiaceae as a whole, and are morphologically of greater im- portance than the style, stigmas, or anther. This is perhaps the reason why Paul Standley, the doyen of students of the Rubiaceae of the New World until his death in 1967, usually gave little attention to the internal parts of the flowers in his descriptions. The differences between many species of Psychotria are difficult to put into words. Standley (1940) in describing P. allenii summed up the problem: "Like the majority of Psychotria species, this one has no outstanding distinctive characters. It is, however, unlike any other known from Central America."
Key 1. Plants epiphytic; carpels 4.
2. Leaves to 1.8 cm long, 0.25-0.55 cm wide ...... 53. P. maxoni
2'. Leaves 2-8 cm long, 1-4 cm wide.
3. Leaves with lateral veins 4-6(-7), often evanescent ...... 64. P. orchidearum
3'. Leaves with lateral veins ca. 10, usually somewhat evident ...... 72. P. pithecobia
1'. Plants not epiphytic; carpels 2 or 5.
4. Carpels 5 ...... 79. P. racemosa
4'. Carpels 2.
5. Plants with the majority of the following characters: leaves membranous, often with veins drying red; inflorescences oblong, the axes red or purple; corolla lobes partly purple or pink ......  76. P. pubescens
5'. Plants with leaves papyraceous or coriaceous, occasionally membranaceous, the veins drying green, yellow, red, brown etc.; inflorescences mostly pyramidal or globose in shape, the axes green, yellow, brown, not usually red or purple.
 6. Stipules notched or retuse at the apex.
7. Plants drying green, brown, gray or yellow, not wine red; leaves membranous to chartaceous.
8. Stipules wider than long, coriaceous, with soft white hairs interspersed with spike-like glands at the base within ...... 23. P. copeyana 
8'. Stipules longer than wide, membranous to chartaceous, glabrous to glabrescent within, without soft white hairs and spike-like glands within.
9. Inflorescence branches and cymules giving a zig-zag effect ...... 6. P. berteriana
9'. Inflorescence branches and cymules not giving a zig-zag effect ...... 49. P. luxurians
7'. Plants usually drying wine red; leaves coriaceous or stiffly chartaceous ...... 18. P. chiriquina
6'. Stipules not notched or retuse at the apex. 
10. Leaves with veins with domatia or pores or minute veil-like structures (often obscured by hairs in P. nervosa) in the axils beneath.
11. Plants densely ferrugineous pubescent; inflorescence emerging from a stiff terminal stipule ...... 59. P. nervosa
11'. Plants glabrous or glabrescent, not densely pubescent; inflorescence not emerging from a stiff terminal stipule.
12. Leaves drying red. 
13. Inflorescences ca. 1 cm long ...... 61. P. oerestediana
13'. Inflorescences 5-12 cm long ...... 67. P. panamensis 12'. Leaves drying green, brown, gray, purple or yellow, not drying red.
14. Largest leaves more than 6.5 cm long.
15. Leaves neither coriaceous nor drying yellow; inflorescences less than 5 cm wide (P. marginata and occasionally P. granadensis excepted). 16. Leaves drying metallic gray or purplish brown or purple; inflorescences 10-16 cm wide ...... 52. P. marginata
16'. Leaves drying green or brown; inflorescences 3-5 cm wide.
17. Inflorescences spike-like, the branches bearing tight flower clusters ...... 3. P. alboviridula 
17'. Inflorescences paniculate, the flowers or flower clusters spreading. 18. Inflorescence to 4 cm long; peduncle not terminated by 5 radiate branches ...... 38. P. granadensis
18'. Inflorescences 5-15 cm long; peduncle often terminated by 5 radiate branches ...... 42. P. horizontalis
15'. Leaves coriaceous, drying a lemon yellow; inflorescences 5-8 cm wide ...... 33. P. fendleri
14'. Largest leaves less than 6.5 cm long. 19. Leaves thinly coriaceous, 1-2 cm wide; stipules obtuse, without awns ...... 46. P. liesneri
19'. Leaves chartaceous, 2-3.5 cm wide; stipules with 1-2 awns ...... 95. P. vallensis
10'. Leaves without domatia in the axils of the lateral veins. 20. Leaves callose marginate.
21. Leaves 14-19 cm long; inflorescence paniculate. 
22. Trees to 10 m tall; twiglets 4-angled; leaves with lateral veins 9-10; inflorescences ca. 10 cm long ...... 78. P. quadrangulata
22'. Trees to 4 m tall; twiglets subterete; leaves with lateral veins ca. 14; inflorescence to 20 cm long ...... 20. P. cincta
21'. Leaves 3-9 cm long. 23. Inflorescences racemiform, the branches distichous; trees to 5 m ...... 65. P. oresbia
23'. Inflorescences paniculate, the branches not distichous; trees to 2 m ...... 81. P. sanfelicensis
20'. Leaves with the margin thin, the blade not callose marginate.
24. Inflorescences with axes spike-like, the flowers disposed in well spaced glomerules.
25. Inflorescences shorter than the terminal leaves; peduncle 2-3 cm long ...... 97. P. viridis
25'. Inflorescences longer than the terminal leaves; peduncles 5-7.5 cm long ...... 3. P. alboviridula
24'. Inflorescences paniculate, racemose, the flowers spreading, not disposed in well spaced, small glomerules.
26. Leaves obviously bullate above ...... 41. P. hammeli
26'. Leaves smooth, not bullate above.
27. Leaves fleshy, to 1.5 cm wide, the lateral veins ca. 4 ...... 68. P. parvifolia
27'. Leaves chartaceous, membranous, rarely coriaceous, more than 1.5 cm wide, the lateral veins 6-30.
28. Leaf-blades rigid, crisp, the lateral veins drying white beneath; inflorescence china white ...... 12. P. capitata
28'. Leaf blades relatively soft, not stiff, the lateral veins drying green, brown, pink, rarely white beneath; inflorescences green, red, yellow, not china white.
29. Twiglets ultimately 4-angled. 30. Stipules decidous; leaves with lateral veins 9-10, drying pink beneath ...... 78. P. quadrangulata
30'. Stipules persistent; leaves with lateral veins 12-15, drying brown or green beneath ...... 39. P. grandis 
29'. Twiglets not strongly 4-angled, often terete. 
31. Flowers precocious, appearing before the leaves ...... 43. P. impatiens 31'. Flowers appearing after the leaves.
32. Leaves drying white or silver or purple beneath.
33. Inflorescence branches with zig-zag appearance ...... 86. P. solitudinum 33'. Inflorescence branches strict, not having a zig-zag appearance.
34. Leaves drying purple beneath.
35. Inflorescence golden pubescent; leaf blades ca. 10 cm wide; stipules scarious marginate ...... 83. P. santa-rosae
35'. Inflorescence not golden pubescent; leaf blades 2-6(-6.8) cm wide; stipules not scarious marginate.
36. Inflorescence shorter than the terminal leaves ...... 73. P. pittieri subsp. oinochrophylla
36'. Inflorescence much longer than the terminal leaves ...... 52. P. marginata
34'. Leaves drying white or silver beneath.
37. Calyx cup spathaceous ...... 7. P. boquetensis
37'. Calyx cup not spathaceous. 38. Leaves consistently rounded at apex; blades with 30-35 lateral veins ...... 74. P. polyphlebia
38'. Leaves acute, obtuse or deltoid at apex; blades with lateral veins less than 30.
39. Fruits turbinate; stipules 1-1.2 cm long, the margins scarious ...... 21. P. cooperi
39'. Fruits rounded or obtuse at the apex; stipules 0.2-0.9 cm long, the margins regular.
40. Corolla tube elongate, 8-30 mm long.
41. Fruits oblong, 1.5-2 cm long; corolla tube 15-30 mm long ...... 17. P. chiapensis
41'. Fruits oblong rotund, to 1 cm long; corolla tube to 13 mm long ...... 66. P. ostaurea
40'. Corolla tube short, 3-5 mm long.
42. Leaves glabrous beneath.
43. Leaves 2.5-8.5 cm long, the lateral veins 12-14; stipules ca. 0.2 cm long ...... 36. P. goldmanii
43'. Leaves 9-12 cm long, the lateral veins ca. 10; stipules ca. 1.5 cm long ...... 96. P. veraguensis
42'. Leaves puberulent to densely pubescent beneath. 44. Leaves densely white pubescent beneath ...... 73. P. pittieri
44'. Leaves puberulent beneath, but not densely so; occasionally glabrescent.
45. Inflorescences ca. 15 cm wide; calyx lobes longer than the calyx cup ...... 23. P. copeyana
45'. Inflorescences 2-8 cm wide; calyx lobes shorter than the calyx cup ...... 96. P. veraguensis
32'. Leaves drying green or brown, not white or silvery white beneath.
46. Leaves opposite but appearing verticillate at the branch tips, sessile, auriculate, drying a deep red; herbs ...... 80. P. rosulatifolia
46'. Leaves opposite but well spaced at the branch tips, not verticillate, petiolate, acute to obtuse at the base; subshrubs, shrubs or trees.
47. Calyx cup with conspicuous glandular markings outside; stipules with 4 pad like cushions of hairs within ...... 25. P. davidsei
47'. Calyx cup eglandular outside; stipules glabrous within, without cushions of hairs.
48. Inflorescences with the lowermost bracts foliaceous and involucrate.
49. Bracts drying red; leaves usually flushed with red beneath ...... 87. P. suerrensis
49'. Bracts drying white or yellow; leaves drying green or brown beneath ...... 19. P. chloritica
48'. Inflorescence with lowermost bracts, if present, subulate or narrowly oblong, not foliaceous, well spaced and not involucrate. 50. Carpels 4; leaves fleshy; plants epiphytic. 
51. Leaves 2-8 cm long; plants not ericoid.
52. Leaves with lateral veins 4-6(-7), often evanescent ...... 64. P. orchidearum52'. Leaves with lateral veins ca. 10, usually somewhat evident ...... 72. P. pithecobia
51'. Leaves to 1.8 cm long; plants ericoid ......
53. P. maxonii 50'. Carpels 2 or 5; leaves membranous to chartaceous; plants terrestrial. 53. Carpels 5 ...... 79. P. racemosa
53'. Carpels 2.
54. Leaves cordate at the base. 55. Leaves with lateral veins 17-20; peduncle ferrugineous-hirsute ...... 45. P. insignis
55'. Leaves with lateral veins 5-10; peduncle glabrous to white pubescent ...... 42. P. horizontalis subsp. basicordata
54'. Leaves acute to obtuse at base, not cordate.
56. Inflorescence racemose, the branches distichous ...... 65. P. oresbia 56'. Inflorescence paniculate.
57. Herbs to 0.5 m tall; leaves with lateral veins 30-35 ...... 80. P. rosulatifolia
57'. Trees, shrubs or subshrubs; leaves with lateral veins less than 30.
58. Fruits obviously didymous. 
59. Leaves lustrous above, the acumen 1-2 cm long; fruits rounded, buttocks-like ...... 1. P. acuminata
59'. Leaves dull above, the acumen scarcely measurable; fruits rounded but not buttocks-like ...... 13. P. carnosocarpa
58'. Fruits not obviously didymous.
60. Inflorescence obviously terminal. 61. Leaves ovate, oval or oblong rotund.
62. Leaves with lateral veins 7-12.
63. Leaves coriaceous, the lateral veins not pellucid red when exposed to light ...... 92. P. tutensis
63'. Leaves chartaceous, the lateral veins pellucid red when exposed to light ...... 24. P. croceovenosa
62'. Leaves with lateral veins 14-20.
64. Stipules conspicuously scarious marginate, the margin drying much lighter than the body ...... 71. P. pilosa
64'. Stipules more or less uniform in texture, the margin not scarious marginate. 65. Largest leaves to 13 cm long; plants densely golden pubescent, drying a molasses tan ...... 89. P. tacarcunensis
65'. Largest leaves to 25 cm long, white to ferrugineous pubescent, drying red, green or brown, not drying a molasses tan. 66. Leaves ferrugineous pubescent beneath; inflorescence mostly sessile ...... 10. P. calophylla
66'. Leaves white puberulent beneath; inflorescence pedunculate ...... 51. P. magna
61'. Leaves elliptic or oblong, not ovate, oval or oblong rotund. 67. Stipules obviously scarious marginate, the margin drying lighter than body ...... 71. P. pilosa
67'. Stipules riot scarious marginate.
68. Leaves thick, coriaceous; fruits ca. 2 cm long ...... 63. P. olgae
68'. Leaves thin, membranous or chartaceous, rarely thinly coriaceous; fruit 0.25-1.5 cm long.
69. Leaves drying yellow, at least below.
70. Leaves chartaceous or membranous.
71. Leaves with lateral veins 9-10, glabrous or glabrescent beneath; inflorescences with the rachis green.
72. Leaves 2.5-6 cm long; inflorescences ca. 8 cm long ...... 81. P. sanfelicensis 72'. Leaves 7-15(-22) cm long; inflorescences to 2 cm long ...... 8. P. brachybotrya 71'. Leaves with lateral veins 9-18, puberulent beneath; inflorescences with rachis purple ...... 76. P . pubescens
70'. Leaves stiffly papyraceous to subcoriaceous.
73. Stipules less than 1 cm long.
74. Subshrubs to 1 m tall; leaves drying lemon yellow beneath ...... 33. P. fendleri
74'. Trees; leaves drying dirty yellow or greenish yellow beneath.
75. Trees to 7 m tall; leaves with lateral veins 9-10; stipules ca. 0.2 cm long, without lobes; fruits ca. 1.5 cm long, pyrenes blue ...... 44. P. indigotica
75'. Trees to 20 m tall; leaves with lateral veins 11-13; stipules ca. 5 mm long, the awns 2; fruits to 0.9 cm long; pyrenes variously colored, not blue ...... 82. P. santaritensis
73'. Stipules more than 1 cm long.
69'. Leaves drying green, brown, red, gray but not yellow beneath. 76. Leaves small, 1-9 cm long.
77. Leaves 1.5-3.5 cm wide.
78. Inflorescences umbelliform. 
79. Leaves with lateral veins ca. 7, the submarginal vein inconspicuous, obviously acuminate ...... 70. P. philacra
79'. Leaves with lateral veins 9-14, the submarginal vein conspicuous, vaguely acuminate ...... 88. P. sylvivaga
78'. Inflorescences with branches not disposed umbellately.
80. Leaves long acuminate, the acumen 1.5-2 cm long. 81. Leaves with lateral veins ca. 15; calyx teeth to 1.7 mm long ...... 23. P. copeyana
81'. Leaves with lateral veins ca. 10; calyx teeth ca. 4 mm long ...... 32. P. eugenifolia
80'. Leaves scarcely acuminate, the acumen less than 1 cm long.
82. Leaves drying red, the lateral veins strict, not wavy or corrugated when dry; calyx teeth ca. 0.5 mm long ...... 5. P. bakeri
82'. Leaves drying gray or reddish gray, brown or green, the lateral veins wavy or wrinkled when dry; calyx with teeth 2-3.5 mm long ...... 16. P. chagrensis
77'. Leaves 3.5-5.5 cm wide.
83. Leaves with lateral veins 5-7; plants drying green, brown, black, not red.
84. Stipules free.
85. Branchlets perpendicular to twigs (Panama); calycine cup without glands within; corolla tube ca. 8 mm long ...... 55. P. microdon
85'. Branchlets ascending; calycine cup with glands within; corolla tube ca. 3 mm long.
86. Inflorescences ca. 3 mm long, shorter than the terminal leaves, the peduncle capillaceous, ca. 0.35 mm wide ...... 37. P. graciliflora
86'. Inflorescences 8-15 cm long, usually longer than the terminal leaves, the peduncle slender, ca. 0.85 mm wide.
84'. Stipules connate.
87. leaves chartaceous; stipules 3-9 mm long; inflorescences 8-15 mm long; the branches zig-zag ...... 26. P. deflexa
87'. Leaves membranous; stipules ca. 3.5 mm long; inflorescences to 2 cm long, the branches strict, not zig-zag ...... 35. P. furcata
83'. Leaves with lateral veins (7-)8-20; plants drying red. 88. Leaves ferrugineous villosulose or ferrugineous-pubescent beneath ...... 59. P. nervosa
88'. Leaves glabrous or pubescent, the pubescence white or golden.
89. Leaves chartaceous; inflorescences with lowermost bracts deciduous or inconspicuous.
90. Flowers drying a brilliant red ...... 84. P. siccorubra
90'. Flowers drying black, brown, green, yellow, if red a dull red. 91. Largest leaves ca. 1.5 cm long ...... 68. P. parvifolia
91'. Largest leaves ca. 3 cm long. 92. Leaves with lateral veins (7-)8-10, often with domatia in the axils; stipules ca. 8 mm long ...... 95. P. vallensis
92'. Leaves with lateral veins ca. 8, without domatia in the axils; stipules ca. 4 mm long ...... 34. P. fruticetorum
89'. Leaves coriaceous; inflorescences with lowermost bracts more than 3 mm long ...... 18. P. chiriquina
76'. Leaves large, 9-40 cm long.
93. Inflorescence axis sinuous and elongate, to 45 cm long ...... 56. P. mima
93'. Inflorescence axis rigid, less than 20 cm long.
94. Inflorescences with the branches umbellately disposed, appearing as an erect trident; fruits ca. 1.8 cm long ...... 94. P. umbelliformis
94'. Inflorescences with branches opposite, alternate or radiate along the axis, not umbellate; fruits >~ less than I cm long (except P. allenii 1-2 cm long).
95. Calyx with cup saucer shaped, truncate, without well-defined teeth; trees 4-6 m tall; leaves with lateral veins 6-8 (occasionally 9 in P. allen ii).
96. Leaves beneath puberulent on costa and veins, coriaceous; ovarian disc with conspicuousring at apex ...... 29. P. durilancifolia 
96'. Leaves beneath glabrous, chartaceous to thinly coriaceous; ovarian disc without conspicuous ring at apex.
97. Fruits ca. 4 mm long; petioles ca. 2.5 cm long ...... 15. P. catillicalyx
97'. Fruits ca. 15 mm long; petioles 1-2 cm long ...... 4. P. allenii
95'. Calyx with cup cylindrical, toothed; shrubs, rarely trees; leaves usually with lateral veins more than 8.
98. Inflorescences ca. I cm long; leaves usually drying a dull red beneath ...... 75. P. psychotriaefolia
98'. Inflorescences more than 2 cm long; leaves green or brown beneath, not drying red.
99. Stipules connate.
100. Stipules to 0.5 cm long, not scarious marginate ...... 35. P. furcata
100'. Stipules 2-3 cm long, strongly scarious marginate ...... 71. P. pilosa
99'. Stipules free.
101. Leaves with lateral veins drying white beneath, the submarginal vein well set in from the margin; inflorescences to 1.5 cm long; fruits drying orange ...... 40. P. haematocarpa
101'. Leaves with lateral veins drying green, yellow, brown, or red, not white, the submarginal vein proximate to margin; inflorescences 2-15 cm long; fruits drying various colors, not orange.
102. Leaves with lateral veins 18-26.
103. Inflorescences longer than wide; peduncle 4-6.5 cm long; leaves pubescent beneath.
104. Subshrubs to shrubs, 1-2 m tall; stipules lobed at base ...... 22. P. copensis
104'. Shrubs to trees, 3-6 m tall; stipules not lobed at base. 105. Inflorescences with basal branches radiate, the lowermost bracts to 0.5 cm long; hypanthium densely villose ...... 54. P. micrantha
05'. Inflorescences with basal branches opposite, the lowermost bracts to 1.5 cm long; hypanthium glabrous to glabrescent ...... 58. P. mnortoniana
103'. Inflorescences wider than long; peduncle 1.5-2 cm long; leaves glabrous beneath ......  47. P. limonensis
102'. Leaves with lateral veins (5-)7-17.
106. Inflorescences with primary branches radiate.
107. Shrubs to 3 m tall; leaves 2-5 cm wide, tapering narrowly into a distinct petiole ...... 14. P. carthaginensis
107'. Trees 5-8 m tall; leaves more than 5 cm wide, the blade not tapering basally. 108. Trees ca. 8 m tall; leaves with lateral veins ca. 12, obviously petiolate; calyx with teeth to 0.5 mm long ...... 90. P. taurina 
108'. Trees ca. 5 m tall, the leaves with lateral veins 5-10, scarcely petiolate; calyx with lobes 1-2.5 mm long ...... 42. P. horizontalis
106'. Inflorescences with primary branches opposite, not radiate.
109. Inflorescences to 6.5 cm long.
110. Fruits 2-2.5 mm long; leaves with lateral veins 15-20 ...... 77. P. pumiliocarpa
110'. Fruits 3-7(-12) mm long; leaves with lateral veins 6-11(-12).
111. Bracts subtending lowermost inflorescence branches elongate, (0.4-)0.6-1.3 cm long; fruits 0.3-0.7 cm long.
112. Peduncle absent or to 1.2 cm long; bracts subtending lowermost branches of inflorescences oblong, to 0.8 cm long ...... 8. P. brachybotrya .
112'. Peduncle 1.5-3.2(-5) cm long; bracts subtending lowermost branches of inflorescences subulate, 0.4-1.3 cm long ...... 62. P. officinalis
111'. Bracts subtending lowermost inflorescence branches short, less than 0.5 cm long; fruits 0.6-1.2 cm long ...... 91. P. trichotoma
109'. Inflorescences 7-22 cm long.
113. Inflorescence branches bearing flowers or flower clusters in a spike-like fashion ...... 3. P. alboviridula
113'. Inflorescences with flowers not disposed in spikes.
114. Inflorescences pyramidal or oblong, not as wide as long; calyx teeth to 1 mm.
115. Leaves chartaceous.
116. Flowers few, aggregated into compressed but non-involucrate heads; largest bracts stiff, not reflexed, paralleling branches of inflorescence; fruits china blue ...... 9. P. brachiata
116'. Flowers many, in well-spaced cymes; largest bracts reflexed and not paralleling branches of inflorescence; fruits variously colored, not china blue ...... 49. P. luxurians
115'. Leaves coriaceous or subcoriaceous.
117. Leaves drying green, basally cuneate, the lateral veins drying white beneath ...... 12. P. capitata
117'. Leaves drying reddish brown, basally attenuate acute, the lateral veins not drying conspicuous white beneath ...... 29. P. durilancifolia
114'. Inflorescences widely paniculate.
118. Inflorescences as wide as long; calyx with teeth 1-1.7 mm long, regular; stipules smooth externally ...... 23. P. copeyana
118'. Inflorescence not as wide as long; calyx with teeth less than 1 mm long, irregular; stipules glandular punctate outside ...... 60. P. nubiphila 60'. Inflorescences axillary.
119. Inflorescences with peduncles 14-45 cm long.
129. Leaves to 9 cm long; peduncles 20-45 cm long ...... 48. P. longipedunculata
120'. Leaves 10-30 cm long; peduncle to 20 cm long.
121. Stems golden pubescent; corolla tube glabrous, the lobes with a rotund mass of hairs adaxially; plants ca. 1 m tall ...... 11. P. capacifolia
121'. Stems glabrous; corolla tube puberulent, the lobes glabrous within; plants ca. 0.5 m tall - 69. P. perparva
119'. Inflorescences with peduncles less than 14 cm long or absent. 122. Stipules with marginal fimbriae.
123. Leaves with lateral veins 10-17; calycine teeth 5. 124. Fruits smooth, round, resembling a rubber ball; ovarian disc about as long as the calyx; subshrubs to shrubs (1-)1.5-2 m tall ...... 85. P. siggersiana
124'. Fruits costate, oblong; ovarian disc shorter than the calyx; subshrubs to 1?/2 m tall ...... 28. P. dukei
123'. Leaves with lateral veins ca. 25; calycine teeth usually 6 ...... 98. P. wilburiana
122'. Stipules more or less entire, without marginal fimbriae. 125. Leaves succulent.
126. Stipules connate, collar shaped, truncate, without teeth or lobes ...... 57. P. morii
126'. Stipules free, not collar shaped, acute, rounded or with 2 awns at the apex. 127. Leaves drying tan beneath. 
128. Leaves with lateral veins ca. 12, glabrous; fruits cherry red ...... 93. P. uliginosa
128'. Leaves with lateral veins ca. 20, densely golden puberulent; fruit color unknown, drying golden color ...... 27. P. dosbocensis
27'. Leaves drying green, gray, brown, red but not tan beneath.
129. Calyx with teeth 0.6-2 mm long; fruit drying colored, not white.
130. Subshrubs to 1 m tall; leaves to 5 cm wide; peduncle absent or to 3 cm long; calyx with teeth 0.6-1 mm long ...... 2. P. aggregata
130'. Herbs ca. 0.25 cm tall; leaves to 18 cm wide; peduncle ca. 16 cm long; calyx with teeth 1.2-2 mm long ...... 69. P. perparva
129'. Calyx with teeth absent or to 0.4 mm; fruits white ...... 50. P. macrophylla
125'. Leaves chartaceous to thinly coriaceous.
131. Inflorescences with flowers densely congested into 1-3 heads; largest leaves 15-25 cm long.
132. Leaves ca. 25 cm long; inflorescences sessile or subsessile; fruits oblong ...... 99. P. xerococcoides
132'. Leaves to 12.5 cm long; inflorescences shortly pedunculate; fruits turbinate ...... 21. P. cooperi
131'. Inflorescences with flowers spreading, not congested into 1-3 heads; largest leaves to 15 cm long.
133. Leaves 9-15 cm long, thinly coriaceous, attenuate or obtuse basally, the lateral veins 7-10; pyrenes not twisted ...... 31. P. erecta
133'. Leaves 5.5-15 cm long, mostly more than 10 cm long, chartaceous, attenuate basally, the lateral veins 7-11; pyrenes twisted ...... 30. P. emetica
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