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Published In: Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 4(1): 5, 44. 1805. (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: J. RENZ
General/Distribution: A large cosmopolitan and very polymorphous genus, distributed in temperate and mainly in tropical regions with c.800 species. 8 species are represented in Pakistan.


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Terrestrial plants with entire globose or oblong tuberoids. Stem slender or stout with several to many cauline or 1-2 basal leaves. Inflorescence one to many-flowered. Flowers very variable in size and form, resupinate, mainly green or white, rarely yellow or rose. Perianth segments free; dorsal sepal and petals usually forming a hood over the column; lateral sepals spreading or reflexed. Petals entire or parted in two, sometimes the anterior segment fimbriate or laciniate or only tooth-like. Labellum with basal nectariferous spur, entire, 3-lobed or 3-5-partite, side-lobes occasionally fimbriate or pectinate. Column very variable in structure; anther erect; pollinia 2, sectile; anther-cells with distinct, ± long anther-canals, enclosing the caudicles, each attached to a naked viscid gland; staminodes granular, usually rather small; rostellum trilobed, mid-lobe ± prominent between the anther-cells; stigmata 2, on separate, distinct processes.

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1 Leaves basal or crowded just above base of stem (2)
+ Leaves cauline (3)
2 (1) Leaves 2-5, crowded above base of stem, bright-green, conspicuously pale yellow margined. Labellum yellow 7 Habenaria marginata
+ Leaves 2, basal, prostrate, dull green with paler spots. Labellum green 1 Habenaria aitchisonii
3 (1) Petals 2-parted 2 Habenaria digitata
+ Petals entire (4)
4 (3) Labellum entire (5)
+ Labellum 3-parted or 3-lobed (6)
5 (4) Petals yellow, forming a hood with dorsal sepal. Labellum yellow. Spur upturned, usually with apical part hooked, 15-25 mm long 3 Habenaria edgeworthii
+ Petals green, spreading. Labellum green, sometimes yellowish-green. Spur deflexed, 10-15 mm long 6 Habenaria latilabris
6 (4) Side lobes of labellum entire 4 Habenaria furcifera
+ Side lobes of labellum fringed (7)
7 (6) Flowers very large, c.5-7 cm in diameter. Spur more than 5 cm long, exceeding ovary. Anther-canals 5-6 mm long 5 Habenaria intermedia
+ Flowers smaller, c.2.5-3 cm in diameter. Spur less than 3 cm long, ± equalling ovary. Anther canals c. 3 mm long 8 Habenaria pectinata
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