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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 134. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/11/2017)
Acceptance : Accepted

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5. Cynoglossum L. (hounds tongue)

Plants biennial or perennial herbs, with stout taproots or less commonly short, stout rhizomes, the rootstock sometimes somewhat woody. Stems erect, usually solitary, unbranched below the inflorescence or few- to several-branched toward the tip, variously hairy. Leaves alternate and basal, the basal leaves well developed at flowering, relatively large (10–30 cm long, 20–50 mm wide), the blade oblanceolate to elliptic or oblong-elliptic, tapered at the base into a long, winged petiole, grading abruptly into the stem leaves. Stem leaves sessile or the lowermost with short, winged petioles, the blade variously shaped, the surfaces moderately to densely hairy. Inflorescences sometimes paired, of short to elongate, ascending to arched, terminal, scorpioid, spikelike racemes, these usually grouped into panicles, the flowers with stalks 2–5(–12) mm long at flowering, usually elongating to 5–12 mm at fruiting, spreading to drooping or recurved at fruiting, the flowers lacking bracts but the inflorescence branch points sometimes with leaflike bracts. Cleistogamous flowers not produced. Calyces actinomorphic, 5-lobed nearly to the base, the lobes 2–5 mm long, oblong-elliptic to lanceolate, becoming somewhat elongated to 4–10 mm at fruiting and elliptic to ovate, hairy, persistent and spreading to loosely ascending or occasionally reflexed at fruiting. Corollas 4–7 mm long, broadly funnelform to trumpet-shaped, actinomorphic, purplish red or pale blue to light blue, the tube relatively short, the throat with 5 small, hairy, scalelike appendages, the lobes 3–5 mm long. Stamens attached near the midpoint of the corolla tube, the filaments short, the anthers oblong to elliptic, not exserted from the corolla. Ovary deeply 4-lobed, the style relatively short and not exserted from the corolla, usually persistent and sometimes becoming stout and tapered from the base at fruiting, the stigma capitate, shallowly 2-lobed. Fruits dividing into usually 4 nutlets, these 5–7 mm long, technically spreading but this not apparent at maturity, asymmetrically broadly obovoid, attached to the narrowly pyramidal gynobase at the tip (but appearing to be attached laterally toward the base), the attachment scar large and sometimes surrounded by a rounded, puckered rim, rounded or bluntly pointed at the tip, the surface with dense, stout, tapered, apically barbed tubercles and sometimes also finely wrinkled, pale gray to nearly white or tan to dull brown. About 75 species, nearly worldwide.


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1 1. Stems densely pubescent with slender, relatively soft, sometimes somewhat woolly hairs, leafy to the tip; inflorescences with leaflike bracts at the branch points; corollas purplish red ... 1. C. OFFICINALE

Cynoglossum officinale
2 1. Stems moderately to densely pubescent with stiff, straight hairs and also much shorter, appressed hairs toward the tip, often also with scattered patches of short, woolly hairs when young, leafless toward the tip; inflorescences bractless; corollas pale blue to light blue ... 2. C. VIRGINIANUM Cynoglossum virginianum
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