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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/25/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 9/25/2013)
Genus DALEA L.
Contributor Peter S. White
Synonym Dalea [L.] Lucanus in L.,36 Opera varia 244. 1758. nom. gen. conserv. Based on Dalea L. non Dalea Mill. 1754. (Solanaceae) nomen rejic. contra Dalea [L.] Lucanus, nec Dalea Browne, 1756. (inc. sed.), nec Dalea J. Gaertn., Fruct. 1: 235. 1788. (Verbenaceae). [Dalea L., Hort. Cliff. 363, tab. 22. 1738. Based on a plant received from P. Miller = Dalea cliffortiana Willd.] Parosela Cav., Descr. P1. 185. 1802. TYPE: Psoralea mutabilis Cav. = Dalea mutabilis Willd. Non Marina Liebm., Vidensk. Meddel. Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Kjobenhavn 1853: 103. 1853, emend. Barneby, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 27: 55. 1977. Thornbera Rydb., J. New York Bot. Gard. 20: 66. 1919. TYPE: Thornbera albiflora (Gray) Rydb. = Dalea albiflora Gray.
Description Perennial or annual herbs or shrubs; gland dotted and nearly always pubes- cent. Leaves alternate, imparipinnate, rarely paripinnate, trifoliate, or simple; leaflets relatively small, entire, conspicuously glandular dotted beneath, the rachis frequently margined or winged, glandular beneath; stipules herbaceous or gland- like; stipels usually represented by glands. Inflorescence of terminal or axillary spikes or racemes, often dense; bracts usually conspicuous, often glandular and pubescent. Flowers with the hypanthium campanulate or turbinate, 10-ribbed, often glandular, the glands and ribs sometimes obscured by pubescence; calyx teeth 5, more or less equal, as long as or longer than the cup; petals 5, white,
Habit herbs or shrubs
Description discussion of taxonomic concepts in Dalea and its relatives, see Barneby (1977). blue, purple, less commonly yellow, inserted on the staminal sheath, the standard clawed, frequently inserted below the wing and the keel petals, the wing and the keel petals perched on and disjointing from the staminal sheath, the keel petals partially united or free; stamens 10, 9, sometimes 5, sometimes indefinitely 5-10, monadelphous, the sheath split to varying degrees, the anther connective often gland tipped; ovary 2-ovulate, only 1 ovule fertile, sessile or short stipitate, the style filiform, the stigma usually minute. Fruit a small, 1-seeded, obovoid legume, sometimes glandular, indehiscent, included within the persistent calyx; seed 1, subreniform, smooth.
Note Dalea is a genus of 150 or more species of gland-dotted shrubs and herbs with its highest diversity in relatively open vegetation on xeric sites in Mexico and the highlands of Peru. Only two species are known from Panama which, with adjacent countries, represents a gap in the genus' general diversity. Dalea can be recog- nized by the following combination of characters: glands present, petals adnate to the staminal tube, anther connective often glandular-appendaged, fruit 1-seed- ed and included in the persistent calyx. The authorship of the conserved name Dalea is a matter of current debate (Barneby, 1965, 1977; Committee for Spermatophyta, 1968). Available for con- servation were Dalea [L.] Lucanus (1758), (sometimes cited as Dalea L., see below), Dalea Juss. (1789), Dalea Vent. (1799), and Dalea L. C. Rich. (1803). Barneby's (1977) opinion has been followed here. Dalea [L.] Lucanus is the earliest of the names listed above and makes sense taxonomically (Barneby, 1977). One difficulty with Dalea [L.] Lucanus is that Opera varia, the work in which the name appears (1758), is a reprint of three pre-1753 Linnaean works bound as a single volume. Linnaeus did not recognize Dalea as a genus in Species Plan- tarum (1753) nor thereafter. Rather he made it clear that Dalea should be regarded as a synonym of Psoralea L. Because Linnaeus did not intend Dalea L. as a generic concept except in pre-1753 works, Barneby (1977) has proposed "Lu- canus" for authorship of the genus, which is the name Barneby gives the anon- ymous editor of Opera varia since the book was published in Lucca. This editor provided legitimate publication for the pre-1753 genus Dalea. While this is some- what dissatisfying, it seems the best current solution. The interested reader is referred to the works cited above for further considerations in this dilemma. Petalostemon Michx., nom. gen. conserv., and Kuhnistera Lam. are both regarded as synonyms of Dalea by Barneby (1977), an opinion also expressed by Shinners (1949) but disagreed with by Isley (1958). No species of these two genera are known from Panama. Sixteen Dalea species were reported for Guatemala (Standley and Steyer- mark, 1946) and five species for Costa Rica (Standley, 1937), but not all are members of Dalea sensu Barneby. The two Panamanian species, D. carthage- nensis (Jacq.) Macbr. and D. cliffortiana Willd., are the most widespread of the species in Central America. Among the plants occurring in Costa Rica and Gua- temala, only one other is a strong possibility for Panama, Marina scopa Barneby (Dalea nutans sensu Standley and Steyermark (1946) = Parosela nutans sensu Standley (1937) = Parosela nutans sensu Rydb. (1920), non Psoralea nutans Cav., non Marina nutans (Cav.) Barneby). This is a weedy species of xeric climates found from Mexico and Guatemala southward to Costa Rica, becoming rarer at the southern end of its range. It is sparingly adventive in Venezuela and Cuba. The following characters for the genus Marina are extracted from Bar- neby's key (1977): Marina has 1-ovulate ovaries; flowers always pedicellate; hairs of the calyx neither spirally twisted nor fulvescent in age; ribs of the calyx not anastomosing at the tip of each calyx tooth; leaflets marked on the upper surface with sinuous pallid lineoles ascending obliquely from the midrib. Dalea has 2- ovulate ovaries (only 1 matures); flowers often sessile, if pedicellate, the calyx pubescent with spiral, fulvescent hairs, or the calyx ribs anastomosing at the tip of each calyx tooth and excurrent as a mucro, or both; leaflets not lineolate.
Reference Barneby, R. C. 1965. Conservation and typification of Dalea. Taxon 14: 160- 164. Barneby, R. C. 1977. Daleae Imagines. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 27. 891 pp. Committee for Spermatophyta (R. McVaugh, secretary). 1968. Conservation of generic names, VIII. Taxon 17: 85-87. Isley, D. 1958. Leguminosae: Psoraleae of the United States, a generic survey. Iowa State College, J. Sci. 33: 23-36. Shinners, L. H. 1949. Transfer of Texas species of Petalostemum to Dalea (Leguminosae) and the genus Dalea (including Petalostemum) in north-cen- tral Texas. Field and Lab. 17: 81-89. Standley, P. C. 1937. Flora of Costa Rica. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 18: part 2.
Key a. Leaflets obovate or elliptic, ca. 2 times longer than broad ...... 1. D. carthagenensis aa. Leaflets narrowly oblong to linear, much more than 2 times longer than broad ...... 2. D. cliffortiana
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