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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 994. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/23/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 8/20/2015)
Area distribution:

Over 400 species, mainly in the northern hemisphere, in temperate regions and in mountains of some tropical areas. Forming dominant tree associations. Three species and several varieties occur in Palestine.


     Literature : Kotschy T., Die Eichen Europas und des Orient,. Wien-Olmüz (1862). Örsted A.S., Etudes preliminaires sur les Cupuliferes des l'epoque actuelle, principalement au point de vue de leurs rapports avec les especes fossiles, Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift. Raekke5, 9, 6: 331-538 (1871-1872). Camus A., Les Chênes : Monographie du genre Quercus, 1-3, Paris (1934-1954). Schwarz O., Cavanillesia 8: 65-100 (1936). SchwarzO., Monographie der Eichen Europas und des Mittelmeergebietes & Atlas, Repert. Sp. Nov. Sonderbeih. D: 1-200, 64 pis. (1936-1939). Zohary M., On the oak species of the Middle East, Bull. Res. Counc. Israel D, 9: 161-186 (1961).


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Deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs. Leaves usually dentate, sinuate or pinnately lobed, rarely entire. Flowers green, inconspicuous. Staminate flowers in drooping catkins; bracts minute, soon deciduous; perianth 4-7-lobed; stamens 4-12, usually with no rudiment of an ovary. Pistillate flowers few, sessile on a short or long rhachis, each enclosed by an involucre of imbricated concrescent scales; perianth urceolate, 6-lobed or -dentate, with tube adherent to ovary; ovary usually 3-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell; styles 3, rarely 4-5, erect or recurved; stigmas minute on the flat inner surface of style; rudimentary stamens sometimes present. Fruit an acorn, solitary or in small groups, composed of a large nut (“gland”) and a cupule; gland 1-celled, 1-seeded, generally much longer than cupule; cupule mostly with imbricated, unarmed or somewhat prickly scales. Seeds with thick and large cotyledons. Germination hypogaeous.



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