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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/24/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 7/24/2013)
Genus Monotropa L
PlaceOfPublication Sp. PI. 1: 387. 1753
Note LECTOTYPE: M. uniflora L.
Synonym Hypopitys Hill, Brit. Herb. 221. 1756. Hypopithys Scopoli, Fl. Carniolica 1: 285. 1771. TYPE: H. multiflora Scop.
Description Fleshy herbs lacking chlorophyll, blackening in drying; tawny, reddish or orangey to translucently white; mycorrhizal root parasites (often considered saprophytic); flowering stems nodding at tip but erect in fruit, 1-15 flowers each borne in the axil of an upper more or less appressed, erose-margined bract, the pedicels recurved, ebracteolate. Flowters (3-)4-5(-6)-parted; calyx of 1-5, lanceolate, deciduous, bractlike scales; corolla campanulate, (3-5)6-parted, the petals erect, imbricate, scalelike, distinct, basally saccate and tardily deciduous; stamens 8-10(-12), the filaments distinct, terete, subulate, pubescent, the outer whorl (opposite the petals) shorter than the inner, the anthers short, kidney- shaped, 1-locular at anthesis, opening by a single terminal slit or by ends of a slit which may later open along its entire length; pollen grains single; nectaries of 8-10 paired lobes between the filament bases; stigma funnel-shaped to discoid, obscurely 4-6-lobed, the style columnar, thick, fleshy, the ovary superior, (8) 10- lobed, (4-)5(-6) loculate basally with axile placentation, I-locular above with 4-5, bibbed parietal placentas. Capsule globose to ovoid, 8-10-grooved, erect, loculicidally 4-6-valved; seeds numerous, minute, tailed.
Habit herbs
Note Monotropa is a genus of perhaps only two circumpolar species, M. uniflora L. and M. hypopithys L., both known from Central America. The genus has usually been regarded as a saprophyte or less commonly as a parasite but the studies of Bjbrkman (1960) indicate that it is better considered an achlorophyl- lous mycotrophyte in which the fungal associate is intermediate between Monotropa and its ultimate host.
Distribution known from Central America.
Reference Bjorkman, E. 1960. Monotropa hypopitys L.-an epiparasite on tree roots. Physiol. P1. (Copenhagen) 13: 308-327. Gupton, 0. 1962. An analysis of the taxonomic criteria as applied to the genus Monotropa. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Nowicke, J. W. 1966. Pollen morphology and classification of the Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 213-219. Wallace, G. B. 1975. Studies of the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae): taxonomy and distribution. Wasmann J. Biol. 33: 1-88.
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