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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/7/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 2/7/2013)
Genus VIROLA Aubl.
PlaceOfPublication P1. Guian. Fr. 2: 904. 1775.
Synonym Sebophora Neck. Elem. 2:188. 1790.
Description Dioecious shrubs or trees, the younger portions usually pubescent with stellate hairs, the sap often reddish or brownish. Leaves alternate, glabrous above, stellate- pubescent and often glabrescent below, submembranaceous to coriaceous, petiolate, exstipulate, the tertiary veins obscure. Flowers in fascicles, racemes or panicles, the axes usually stellate-pubescent; bracts membranaceous, deciduous; bracteoles absent. Staminate flowers in fascicles of 3-15, the perianth deeply or shallowly 3- to 4- parted; anthers 2-6, dorsally connate, at least basally, longer or shorter than the column. Pistillate flowers solitary or in fascicles of 2-7, the tepals partially connate. Fruits 1-40 per inflorescence, the ligneous pericarp dehiscing longitudinally into 2 valves; seed globose to ellipsoid, the aril laciniate.
Habit shrubs or trees
Distribution The largest American genus, this has 38 species concentrated largely in the Amazon basin. Five of the six Central American species occur in Panama, the sixth being thus far reported only from British Honduras.
Key a. Hairs of lower leaf surfaces stalked, persistent. b. Secondary veins of leaves 10-28 on either side, averaging less than 1 per cm. along the midrib; staminate inflorescences much branched; mature fruits 10-30 per inflorescence, the pericarp 0.5-2.0 mm. thick -- 1. V. SEBIFERA. bb. Secondary veins of leaves 18-35 on either side, averaging more that 1 per cm. along the midrib; staminate inflorescences 1- or 2-branched; mature fruits 1-5 per inflorescence, the pericarp 2-3 mm. thick 2. V. KOSCHNYI. aa. Hairs of the lower leaf surfaces sessile, usually evanescent. c. Secondary veins of leaves 25-30 on either side, averaging 1.5-2.5 per cm. along the midrib; bracts of the staminate inflorescences 3-5 mm. long; fruits short-stipitate, 3-8 per inflorescence, on pedicels 6-9 mm. long 3. V. NOBILIS. cc. Secondary veins of leaves 9-21 on either side, averaging 0.8-1.3 per cm. along the midrib; bracts of the staminate inflorescences 2-3 mm. long; fruits sessile. d. Pedicels of the staminate flowers 0.5-1.5 mm. long, subtended by a conspicuous discoid expansion of the ultimate peduncle; fruits 1-5 per inflorescence, more than 2 cm. long, the pedicels 5-10 long 4. V. GUATEMALENSIS. dd. Pedicels of the staminate flowers 2-3 cm. long, the subtending peduncle not conspicuously flared in the form of a disk; fruits 5-40 per inflorescence, less than 2 cm. long, the pedicels 2-5 mm. long 5. V. ELONGATA.
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