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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/14/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/14/2013)
Genus Sambucus L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 269. 1753.
Note TYPE: S. nigra L.
Description Herbs, shrubs, or trees, sometimes sarmentose; branches with a soft, solid pith, the twigs glabrous or pubescent, often drying striate, sometimes purplish. Leaves opposite, evergreen, not connate, imparipinnately-divided, - the leaflets finely toothed, glabrous or pubescent with simple hairs and sometimes with subsessile glands which may dry reddish; the petiole sometimes gland-bearing, estipulate or with stipule-like glandular appendages, often slightly clasping the stem; petio- lules short, sometimes stipellate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, held above
Habit Herbs, shrubs, or trees
Note No fruiting material was seen from Panama. Details of the fruit are taken from Eggert, 16 Sept. 1896 (MO), from Panola County, Mississippi.
Description the leaves, panicles or compound umbellate cymes or variations between these types, bracts and bracteoles sometimes present, some flowers without pedicels. Flowers bisexual, numerous, small, fragrant, mostly white or reddish; calyx cam- panulate, the tube adnate to the ovary and enclosing it in fruit, the lobes small, mostly glabrous, persistent on the fruit; corolla perigynous, campanulate-rotate, deeply-lobed, the lobes rotund, quincuncial or rarely valvate in bud, glabrous or with a few hairs near the apex of the tube; stamens equal, the filaments inserted on the short corolla tube, glabrous, the anthers ellipsoidal, basi-fixed, opening extrorsely by longitudinal lateral slits; ovary immersed more than half-way in the calyx tube, 1-5-locular, the ovules 1 per locule, pendulous from the apex of the locule, anatropous, the superior portion (style) glabrous, stout and conical, the stigmas as many as the locules, often unequal, more or less connate; disc wanting. Fruit a 1-5-seeded juicy berry; the seeds lenticular, slightly trigonous,,rugose, the dorsal surface widest.
Distribution About 20 species in the temperate zones and a few on tropical mountains.
Note Most species are found in the north temperate zone, and some range into the Arctic. Major taxonomic distinctions are in the structure of the inflorescence, color of the pith, and appearance of the fresh fruits. Several sections are recog- nised in the genus, and the two Panamian species belong to sect. Sambucus, which includes both New and Old World species. Features of wood histology, inflorescence structure, and general appearance have suggested to several writers that this genus may not belong in the Capri- foliaceae. In many respects, Sambucus is similar to the Araliaceae. In other parts of the world, the flowers and leaves are used medicinally, and the berries are sometimes used for making wine. The roots and some other parts of the plants are reputedly poisonous and uncooked berries may cause nausea.
Reference Schwerin, F. 1909. Monographie der Gattung Sambucus. Mitt Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 18: 1-56. Schwerin, F. 1909. Revisio generis Sambucus. op. cit. 29: 194-231.
Key a. Leaves membranaceous, mostly 3-5-foliolate, the veins mostly 4-5 on each side of the midvein, the serrations irregular and not extending into the obtuse basal 1/5 of the leaf; shrub not exceeding 5 m tall; not known to fruit in Panama ...... 1. S. canadensis var. laciniata aa. Leaves fleshy, mostly 7-11-foliolate, the veins mostly 7-10 on each side of the mid- vein, the serrations evenly fine and extending into the rounded leaf base; shrub or tree to 20 m tall; berries globose, 7-9 mm in diameter, abundantly produced in Panama ...... 2. S. peruviana
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