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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 1/11/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 1/11/2013)
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 235. 1753.
Description Perennial or biennial, glabrous, or pubescent herbs from taproots, rootstocks, tubers, or fascicled roots; stems (sometimes obsolete) erect to rarely decumbent, simple or branched, the leaves petiolate, lobed or divided to decompound, rarely entire, the petiole sheathing; inflorescence of cymosely, umbellately, or panicu- lately arranged small heads subtended by a foliaceous involucre, the flowers perfect and staminate, white, yellow, or purple, the petals with an inflexed apex, the calyx very prominent and persistent; stylopodium lacking, the styles short to elongate, a carpophore lacking; fruit somewhat compressed laterally and densely tuberculate, scaly, or bristly, sessile or stipitate, the ribs obsolete, the vittae irregularly arranged, prominent to obscure; seed subterete or flattened dorsally, often sulcate beneath the vittae, its face flat to concave or sulcate.
Habit herb
Note Sanicula, another of the most distinctive genera of the family, consists of some 40 species distributed in a semi-cosmopolitan pattern, but concentrated in the temperate zones. The genus was monographed by Wolff in 1913 (Das Pflanzen- reich 61 [IV. 228]:1-305) and by Shan and Constance in 1951 (Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 25:1-78). The interpretation of the inflorescence as consisting of capitulae (condensed simple umbels) or heads instead of "irregularly compound um- bels"-the more usual view-is taken from the discriminating essay on, "The Um- belliferae of North Carolina and their distribution in the southeast" (Jour. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 66:195-266. 1950) by Charles L. Rodgers. The earlier treat- ment of the family by Mathias and Constance in NORTH AMERICAN FLORA separated the genera Sanicula and Eryngium widely. We now firmly believe this to have been a mistake. In returning the genera to closer juxtaposition, it is helpful to interpret their characteristics in comparable terms.
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