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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/4/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 6/4/2013)
Genus Adenostemma J. R. & G. Forster.
PlaceOfPublication Char. Gen. P1. 89. 1776.
Note TYPE: A. viscosa J. R. & G. Forster.
Synonym Lavenia Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 112. 1788. TYPE: L. erecta Swartz.
Description Small to large perennial herbs, creeping or erect with usually procumbent bases, with few or no branches, with few to many glandular hairs on stems, leaves, and involucral bracts; stems usually fistulose. Leaves opposite with short to long petioles; blades narrowly elliptical to broadly ovate or hastate, the base slightly to strongly cuneate, trinervate, the apex acute to slightly acuminate. Inflorescence very laxly cymose, the branches elongate. Heads discoid with 10-60 florets; involucre of 10-30 mostly eximbricate bracts with often fused basal margins, in 2 slightly overlapping series, spreading when mature; receptacle convex, covered with discrete oval deeply concave scars, glabrous; corollas narrowly funnelform or with narrow tube and broadly campanulate limb, usually with hairs or glands on outer surface, hairs often moniliform, the lobes 4-5, nonpapillose, the cells of the limb fragile with thin straight or laxly sinuous walls; anther collars usually enlarged below, with few to many quadrate cells, the walls ornamented, the exothecial cells quadrate to very short, the anther appendage distinctly shorter than wide; style base glabrous, not enlarged, the style shaft usually with some hairs, the style appendages fleshy, rounded apically, usually broadly clavate, of smooth, thin-walled cells usually distorted when dry. Achene slightly curved, slightly 3-4-angled without distinct ribs; carpopodium forming a prominent somewhat asymmetrical knob with a stout vascular basal point, the cells sub- quadrate with firm thin walls; pappus of 3-4 terete clavate knobs (5 in Guatemalan species), the knobs with tips and upper outside surface covered with an elongate mass of viscid glands. Pollen with short spines.
Habit herbs
Distribution occurring primarily at low eleva- tions in Central America, the West Indies, South America, Asia, and Africa.
Note An important characteristic of the genus is its achenes which have a sticky pappus allowing for easy distribution by animals. The genus seems to have the most successful distribution mechanism in the tribe since it occurs widely in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific where there are many distinct species.
Reference Grierson, A. J. C. 1972. Critical notes on the Compositae of Ceylon. Ceylon Jour. Sci., Biol. Sci. 10: 42-60. King, R. M. & H. Robinson. 1974. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). CXXVII. Additions to the American and Pacific Adenostemmatinae. Adeno- stemma, Gymnocoronis and Sciadocephala. Phytologia 29: 1-20.
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