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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 921. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/8/2022)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 2/26/2022)
Contributor Text: Abdul Ghafoor
Contributor Institution: Centre for Plant Conservation, University of Karachi – PAKISTAN


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Annual or perennial, mostly glandular–hairy and aromatic herbs. Stems procumbent to erect, occasionally woody at base. Leaves simple, alternate, ± sessile, entire or dentate to ± pinnatifid. Capitula 1–3 at apices of stem and branches. Phyllaries 1–2 (–3)–seriate, with narrowly scarious margins; receptacle flat, epaleate, pitted. Ray florets 1–3 (–4)–seriate, female, fertile; ligules yellow or orange; style branches linear. Disc florets tubular, 5–lobed, yellow–red or brownish; peripheral florets bisexual; innermost functionally male; anthers tailed; styles undivided, apically acute and surrounded by a ring of short hairs. Cypselas polymorphic within same capitulum, incurved to various degrees; ray cypselas cymbiform, straight to curved, rostrate, winged; disc cypselas usually small, strongly curved, sometimes ± annular and transversely rugose.

A small genus of 10–15 or 25 species (depending on taxonomic opinions), mainly distributed in Macronesia, N Africa, (Mediterranean region), southern and central Europe, Arabia, Iraq, Iran, and Pakistan. Represented in our area by two species of which one is cultivated


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Basal leaves oblong to obovate. Capitula 10 – 15 (–20) mm     across. Phyllaries 8 – 10 mm long. Ray florets up to 22, with ligules as long as or slightly longer than the phyllaries.



1. C. arvensis


Basal leaves oblanceolate to spathulate. Capitula 25 – 50 mm across. Phyllaries 10 – 15 mm long. Ray florets mostly > 30 with ligules twice as long as phyllaries.



2. C.officinalis

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