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Published In: A Voyage to Terra Australis 2: 554. 1814. (19 Jul 1814) (Voy. Terra Austral.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Institution: Herbarium, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad. (Now at the University of Tripoli, Libya.)
General/Distribution: A largely tropical or a sub-tropical family of some 90 genera and about 1,000 species. Represented in Pakistan by 4 genera and 10 species.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the United States Department of Agriculture for financing this research under P.L. 480 and to Messrs. B.L. Burtt, I.C. Hedge and Miss J. Lamond of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh for giving valuable suggestions.


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Trees, shrubs or climbers; spiny or not. Leaves simple, opposite or alternate, stipulate, often coriaceous. Flowers small. actinomorphic, bisexual or polygamous, usually in cymes. Calyx small, 4-5, imbricate, inserted on the disc. Petals 4-5, rarely absent, small, green, inserted below the disc or continous with the margin, imbricate. Stamens 3-5, inserted on the disc, alternating with the petals. Gynoecium 2-5-carpellary, 2-5-celled, surrounded or partly sunk in the disc; ovules usually 2 in each cell; style absent or short. Fruit variable, a loculicidal capsule, a samara, a dupe or a berry. Seeds often arillate, sometimes winged, usually endospermic.

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1 Ovary continous with the disc. Fruit drupaceous. Seeds exarillate Cassine
+ Ovary not continous with the disc. Fruit capsular. Seeds arillate (2)
2 (1) Leaves opposite. Ovary sunken in the disc Euonymus
+ Leaves alternate. Ovary not sunken in the disc (3)
3 (2) Unarmed climbing shrub. Stamens arising form the edge of the disc. Ovary seated on the disc Celastrus
+ Armed shrub or a small tree. Stamens arising below the disc. Ovary confluent with the disc Maytenus
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