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Published In: Genera Plantarum 23. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: YASIN J. NASIR
Contributor Institution: National Herbarium, Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad.
General/Distribution: A large family of 115 genera and c. 2000 species, mostly tropical. Represented in Pakistan by 11 genera and 13 species, of which 6 genera are commonly cultivated. There may be other cultivated genera also.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Araceae indet.

Tuber ovoid-oblong, with stout fibrous roots. Leaves cordate-ovate, 16 cm x 9-10.5 cm, petiole 24-27 cm long, base sheathing.

Kashmir: C-7 above Dhuli, 18.4.52, R.R. Stewart & E. Nasir 23720 (RAW).

There are 2 sheets of this aroid at the National Herbarium, but unfortunately both specimens are vegetative. Last year at the end of May, I went to the area from where it was last collected, but did not succeed in finding it. It may even be a juvenile stage of Arisaema utile Hook. f. as suggested by Dr. Nicolson. Fl.Per.: Probably May.

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for financing this research under PL-480. Thanks are also due to Dr. D. Nicolson, Curator of the Botany Department, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, Dr. H. Hara, Botany Dept. Univ. of Tokyo, and Messrs B.L. Burtt, I.C. Hedge and Miss J. Lamond of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh for giving valuable suggestions and going through the manuscript.


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Monoecious or paradioecious perennial herbs or shrubs, sometimes epiphytic or aquatic. Roots adventitious. Stem aerial or modified into rhizome, corm or tubers. Leaves alternate, entire or divided. Inflorescence a spadix, subtended by a spathe. Flowers ebracteate, uni- or bisexual, usually protandrous. Perianth usually absent, sometimes of 6 tepals in bisexual flowers (absent in Monstera). Stamens usually 6, free or united, staminodes occasional. Ovary 1-3-locular; ovules few-many; stigma small and sessile. Fruit a berry; seeds few-many.

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1 Terrestrial or marshy herbs or shrubby climbers (2)
+ Floating herbs Pistia
2 (1) Spathe not leaf-like, various or hooded, partially or almost enclosing the spadix (3)
+ Spathe leaf-like, not enclosing the laterally placed spadix Acorus
3 (2) Climbing herbs with bisexual flowers (4)
+ Low growing herbs with unisexual flowers (5)
4 (3) Climbers with smaller, entire or lobed, sometimes variegated leaves. Raphides absent. Stamens 6. Spathe small, curved, enclosing a small, ± cylindrical spadix Epipremnum
+ Stout lianas with large leaves (sometimes perforated). Raphides present. Stamens 4.Spathe large, enclosing the stout concial spadix Monstera
5 (3) Herbs with underground stems (tuber, rhizome or corm). Latex absent (6)
+ Suffruticose herbs with an aerial, ± thick and Ringed stem, topped by a crown of leaves. Latex present Dieffenbachia
6 (5) Leaves undivided, sometimes peltate (7)
+ Leaves digitately compound or pedate (10)
7 (6) Plants with underground corms, tubers or with a rootstock. Spathe limb erect (8)
+ Plants rhizomatous, spathe limb curved, cuspidate Zantedeschia
8 (7) Leaves peltate. Spadix included. Neuter organs absent above the flowers (9)
+ Leaves not peltate. Spadix exserted; the male flowers with deflexed hair-like neuters above Arum
9 (8) Rootstock up to 2 m long. Basal lobes of leaves acute Alocasia
+ Corm up to 15 cm broad. Basal lobes of leaves obtuse Colocasia
10 (6) Plants monoecious or para-dioecious. Inflorescence appearing with the leaves. Leaves 1-3, trifoliolate, pedate or whorled. Neuter organs subulate Arisaema
+ Plants monoecious. Inflorescence appearing before the leaves. Leaves solitary, pedate. Neuter organs clavate Sauromatum
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