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Published In: Lehrbuch der Botanik 131. 1874. (Lehrb. Bot.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/19/2018)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 7/19/2018)

The Gymnospermae comprises 17 families and about 840 species. They are represented in the local flora by two classes/divisions: the Pinopsida and Gnetopsida.


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Trees or shrubs with secondary thickening and often with resin ducts. Xylem without vessels (except in Gnetopsida); tracheids are abundant. Leaves needle-like, scale-like or broad, sometimes 0. Flowers mostly unisexual; the staminate with pollen sacs (microsporangia), borne on the upper or lower side of stamens (micro-sporophylls); ovulate flowers consisting of ovules (macrosporangia), borne on a macrosporophyll or at -the end of a flower axis but not enclosed in an ovary (pistil absent). Pollen reaching the ovule directly (not via a stigma). Female prothallium many-celled, forming the endosperm and containing reduced archegonia. Seeds consist of seed-coat, a diploid embryo with 2 -to many cotyledons and a haploid endosperm.

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