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Published In: Dictionnaire raisonné des termes de botanique et des familles naturelles ... 296. 1831. (Dict. Rais. Term. Bot.) Name publication detail

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6. Tribe Gnaphalieae Benth.

Plants annual or perennial herbs (woody elsewhere), sometimes entirely or incompletely dioecious, fibrous-rooted or taprooted, sometimes with rhizomes or stolons, usually densely pubescent with white to grayish white woolly hairs, the sap not milky. Stems unbranched or branched, not spiny or prickly. Leaves basal and alternate, not spiny or prickly, sessile or with short, poorly differentiated petioles. Leaf blades simple, the margins entire or with a few small teeth (more divided elsewhere). Inflorescences terminal and sometimes also axillary spikes, racemes, or flat-topped to headlike clusters, these sometimes grouped into small panicles. Heads appearing discoid, with usually numerous florets. Involucre cylindrical to ovoid or hemispherical, with few to several unequal series of overlapping bracts, these appressed or spreading at maturity, at least partially white to straw-colored or purplish-tinged, scalelike or papery, not spiny or tuberculate, often all or partially obscured by dense pubescence. Receptacle usually flat, less commonly convex or concave, naked or with chaffy scales in Diaperia. Central florets (except in dioecious taxa) perfect or staminate (the style branches not or only slightly spreading at maturity). Marginal florets (except in staminate plants of dioecious taxa) pistillate (lacking stamens). Corollas very slender, tubular, with very short lobes. Pappus absent (in Diaperia) or more commonly of capillary bristles (awns or scales elsewhere), these finely toothed or barbed (plumose elsewhere), sometimes somewhat expanded and narrowly club-shaped at the tip, free or sometimes fused at the base, usually shed before fruiting. Stamens with the filaments not fused together, the anthers fused into a tube, each tip with a short, sometimes indistinct appendage, each base prolonged into a pair of short lobes. Style branches usually somewhat flattened, each with a stigmatic line along each inner margin, the sterile tip rounded or more commonly truncate, hairy. Fruits relatively small, variously shaped, not winged, not beaked, glabrous, hairy, or with minute papillae. About 180 genera, about 2,000 species, worldwide.

Traditionally, the genera treated here as tribe Gnaphalieae were included in an expanded concept of Inuleae (Steyermark, 1963; Cronquist, 1980; Gleason and Cronquist, 1963, 1991; Barkley, 1986). Anderberg (1991, 1994), using morphological and anatomical data, and Panero and Funk (2002), using molecular data, have shown that this group has closer affinities to the Astereae and Anthemideae than to the Inuleae and Plucheeae. In spite of this, the limits of the tribe Gnaphalieae remain less than perfectly understood, and some generic limits within the group also require further study. In the absence of data to the contrary, the present treatment of generic limits follows that of the forthcoming Flora of North America treatment more for expediency than out of full confidence that the relatively finely split genera in that volume will withstand the test of time.


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1 1. Receptacle with chaffy bracts; pappus absent; individual heads grouped into a dense, more or less spherical, headlike cluster at each stem or branch tip, the individual heads difficult to differentiate ... 60. DIAPERIA

2 1. Receptacle naked; pappus of numerous capillary bristles; inflorescences various, but the heads not grouped into dense, headlike clusters or, if so, then not restricted to the stem tip

3 2. Heads short-stalked; plants dioecious or nearly so, perennial, with rhizomes or stolons

4 3. Pistillate heads usually with a few central staminate flowers (plants incompletely dioecious); plants with rhizomes, lacking a basal rosette of large leaves at flowering time ... 58. ANAPHALIS

5 3. Pistillate heads lacking central staminate florets (plants completely dioecious); plants with stolons, forming colonies of rosettes of basal leaves, the basal leaves much larger than those of the flowering stems ... 59. ANTENNARIA

6 2. Heads sessile or short-stalked; plants not dioecious, the heads with the marginal florets pistillate, the central florets perfect, annual or biennial, with taproots

7 4. Inflorescences narrow, spikelike; heads sessile or minutely stalked; involucre 3–5 mm long, usually brownish- and/or purplish-tinged, the bracts in 3–5 overlapping series; pappus bristles fused at the base, shed intact as a ring; plants not or only slightly aromatic ... 61. GAMOCHAETA

8 4. Inflorescences relatively broad panicles; heads sessile or more commonly short-stalked; involucre 5–8 mm long, usually white to straw-colored, rarely faintly pinkish- or purplish-tinged, the bracts in 5–7 overlapping series; pappus bristles mostly free at the base, shed individually or in small groups; plants moderately to strongly aromatic when crushed or bruised ... 62. PSEUDOGNAPHALIUM Pseudognaphalium
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