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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 20. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/22/2017)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 7/9/2009)
Status: Native


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4. Verbena hastata L. (blue vervain)

Pl. 574 j–l; Map 2687

Plants perennial. Stems 40–150(–220) cm long, erect or strongly ascending, moderately to strongly 4-angled, moderately to densely pubescent with nonglandular, somewhat curved, loosely ascending to appressed, often pustular-based hairs. Leaves moderately petiolate, the petioles mostly 10–25 mm long, usually winged toward the tip, the blades 4–20 cm long, at least those of the largest leaves 15–45 mm wide, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or narrowly ovate, rounded, angled, or short-tapered to a nonclasping base, tapered to a sharply pointed tip, unlobed or the larger leaves with a pair of spreading basal lobes, the margins relatively coarsely and doubly toothed, both surfaces glabrous or sparsely to moderately, but inconspicuously pubescent with short, loosely appressed, nonglandular, occasionally pustular-based hairs (not appearing grayish), sometimes roughened to the touch. Inflorescences usually panicles of 5 to numerous spikes, these 2–20 cm long, moderately dense (the flowers strongly overlapping except sometimes the lowermost ones), appearing stout when young but relatively slender at maturity, elongating greatly with age. Bracts 2.0–2.5 mm long, slightly shorter than the calyx, narrowly lanceolate. Calyces 2.3–3.0 mm long. Corollas 6–10 mm long, the outer surface sparsely to moderately hairy near the tip of the tube, funnelform, purple to purplish blue (rarely white or pink), the tube slightly broadened toward the tip, the limb 3.0–4.5 mm in diameter. Nutlets 1.5–2.0 mm long, narrowly oblong to narrowly oblong-elliptic in outline, the inner surface usually slightly pale and with sparse to moderate, minute, appressed hairs, the outer surface reddish brown, smooth or with several faint longitudinal ridges, these sometimes with a few, faint cross-ridges toward the tip. 2n=14. June–October.

Scattered nearly throughout the state, but less common in the Ozark Division than elsewhere (throughout the U.S.; Canada). Banks of streams and rivers, margins of ponds, sloughs, and lakes, bottomland prairies, fens, bottomland forests, mesic upland forests, and ledges of bluffs; also fencerows, margins of crop fields, fallow fields, ditches, railroads, roadsides, and open, disturbed areas.

Plants with the pubescence tending to be stiffer and the stems and leaves thus more roughened to the touch have been called var. scabra Moldenke, but these intergrade fully with plants having somewhat softer pubescence. Rare plants with white corollas have been called f. albiflora Moldenke, and plants with pink corollas have been called f. rosea C.I. Cheney.



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