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Published In: Journal de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire Naturelle et des Arts 88: 192–193. 1819. (Mar 1819) (J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

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1. Tribe Anthemideae Cass.

(Bremer and Humphries, 1993)

Plants annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, sometimes from a woody rootstock, often aromatic, the sap not milky. Stems not spiny or prickly. Leaves alternate (rarely opposite elsewhere), sometimes also in a basal rosette, sometimes appearing fasciculate, sessile or short-petiolate, not spiny or prickly. Leaf blades often lobed, the venation pinnate or palmate, with 1 or few main veins. Inflorescences terminal panicles, clusters of heads, or the heads solitary at the branch tips. Heads discoid or radiate. Involucre of 2 to several series of bracts, not spiny or tuberculate. Receptacle flat to hemispherical or conical, naked or at least some of the florets subtended by chaffy bracts, receptacle rarely long-hairy. Ray florets (when present) pistillate or less commonly sterile, sometimes inconspicuous, the corollas sometimes very short, white, cream-colored, or yellow, rarely pink. Disc florets all perfect or the innermost sometimes staminate or the outermost sometimes pistillate, the corolla yellow to greenish yellow, less commonly white or pink, the 4 or more commonly 5 short lobes spreading to ascending. Pappus of few scales or reduced to a low collar or crown, sometimes absent, when present persistent at fruiting. Stamens with the filaments not fused together, the anthers fused into a tube, each tip without a distinct appendage, each base truncate or with a pair of short lobes. Style branches usually somewhat flattened, each with a stigmatic line along each inner margin, the sterile tip short and usually truncate, often with dense, minute hairs. Fruits sometimes dimorphic (the outer series then thicker-walled and with different surface ornamentation), circular or more commonly angled in cross-section, oblong to slightly wedge-shaped in profile, sometimes ribbed, rarely appearing nearly winged, not beaked. About 110 genera, about 1,750 species, worldwide.

The tribe Anthemidae contains a number of garden ornamentals, including the numerous cultivated members of the Chrysanthemum alliance (Soreng and Cope, 1991). Some members of the tribe are pharmacologically or biochemically important and have been used as medicinal herbs, in cosmetics and shampoos, and as a source of insecticides. Similarly, because of their aromatic compounds, some species have been eaten as potherbs and garnishings or used in herbal teas and liquors. However, some members of the tribe are noxious weeds of croplands and pastures.

The taxonomy of the tribe is still not fully understood, and several of the generic complexes require further systematic and phylogenetic study. Although the breakup of the formerly large genus Chrysanthemum L. is now widely accepted (for discussion, see the treatment of Leucanthemum), the transfer of some of the species groups into Tanacetum remains controversial. Similarly, many botanists have not accepted the segregation of Seriphidium (Besser ex Less.) Fourr. from Artemisia. The generic taxonomy of the chamomiles and their relatives remains especially confusing. The present treatment of the tribe may not be entirely satisfying to readers (for it is less than satisfying to the author), and it should be regarded as an interim classification at best.

Note that the genus Hymenopappus, which was included in the Anthemidae in some of the older botanical literature, is here treated in the helenioid group of Heliantheae, following Bremer and Humphries (1993).


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1 1. Heads discoid or appearing so, the marginal florets sometimes pistillate and slightly zygomorphic

2 2. Inflorescences spikes or racemes, sometimes grouped into panicles, these usually elongate or pyramidal, the branches spikelike, racemose, or sometimes reduced to small clusters sessile along the main axis ... 3. ARTEMISIA

3 2. Inflorescences solitary heads or loose clusters of heads at the branch tips, or flat-topped to dome-shaped panicles with solitary heads or clusters of heads at the ultimate branch tips

4 3. Receptacles hemispherical or strongly convex, elongating as the fruits mature ... 6. MATRICARIA

5 3. Receptacles flat or slightly convex, not elongating as the fruits mature ... 7. TANACETUM

6 1. Heads radiate

7 4. Rays yellow ... 4. COTA

8 4. Rays white

9 5. Receptacle chaffy, the bracts sometimes absent from the marginal portion

10 6. Inflorescences dense panicles, flat-topped to dome-shaped; ray florets with corollas 25(7) mm long; pappus absent; fruits flattened ... 1. ACHILLEA

11 6. Inflorescences of solitary heads at the branch tips; ray florets with corollas 515 mm long; pappus a short collar or crown, rarely absent; fruits more or less (8)10-ribbed ... 2. ANTHEMIS

12 5. Receptacle naked

13 7. Receptacle flat or slightly convex, not or only slightly elongating as the fruits mature; ultimate segments or lobes of the leaves variously shaped but not narrowly linear or threadlike

14 8. Inflorescences of solitary heads at the stem tips; leaf blades narrowly obovate to oblong-oblanceolate in outline (those of the uppermost leaves sometimes linear), pinnately lobed or less commonly only toothed, the lobes or teeth mostly more than 7 ... 5. LEUCANTHEMUM

15 8. Inflorescences of flat-topped to dome-shaped terminal panicles; leaf blades ovate to elliptic in outline, pinnately compound or less commonly the uppermost only deeply lobed, the primary leaflets (or lobes) mostly 3 or 5 ... 7. TANACETUM

16 7. Receptacle hemispherical or strongly convex, tending to elongate as the fruits mature; ultimate segments of the leaves narrowly linear or threadlike

17 9. Fresh plants strongly aromatic when bruised (with the aroma of pineapple); receptacle at fruiting conical; fruits 5-ribbed ... 6. MATRICARIA

18 9. Fresh plants odorless or nearly so when bruised; receptacle at fruiting hemispherical to dome-shaped; fruits 3-ribbed (2 marginal ribs and a winglike rib on 1 of the faces) ... 8. TRIPLEUROSPERMUM Tripleurospermum
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