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Published In: Flora indica; or, descriptions of Indian Plants 3: 596. 1832. (Fl. Ind.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: ABDUL GHAFOOR
Flower/Fruit: Fl. Per.: March-May.
Type: Type: Forest near Doan on way to Shreenagar, Capt. Hardwicke.
Distribution: Distribution: Confined to Indo-Pakistan subcontinent (Kashmir, E. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh) from 1200 to 2700 m.
Comment/Acknowledgements: The tree is frequently cultivated for shade near temples or houses. It is lopped for fodder. The leaves are used for feeding silkworms. The hard tough timber is used for furniture and carving, toys, troughs and agricultural implements. Ripe fruits are edible.
Map Location: B-7 Hazara, Kagan, Malkandi, 6000 ft., 8.7.1899, Inayat (K); N.W.F. Province, below Nathia, July 07, Harold Deane s.n. (K); C-7 Azad Kashmir, Kotli District, Nakial 5000 ft., R.R Stewart 27376 (KUH); Road from Murree Hills, Jhika Galli to Lower Tops, 6500 ft., 11.5.1918, T.A. Sprague 75 (K); upper Tops, 7000 ft., small male tree, 14.5.1918, T.A. Sprague 83 (K); Muses hills, Jhika galli, 6500 ft., medium sized female tree, 16.5.1918, T.A. Sprague 91 (K); Murree woods, 20.6.1851, collector unknown 289 (K); Murree, near Rosenheim; 6000 ft., 6.5.1952, R.J. Rodin 5315 (K); D-8 Lahore: Agri. Hort. Gardens, cultivated, “Bedana” (seedless), fruit red, sweet, 13.3.1936, R.N. Parker s.n. (K).


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A large deciduous, dioecious tree, up to 20 m tall. Stem upto 2-3 m in circumference, with reddish or grey-brown, scaly bark on old trunk and smooth on younger branches, tender shoots pubescent. Leaves with a pubescent, 2-5 can long petiole; lamina ovate to broadly ovate, 5-15 cm long, (2.5-) 3-10 an broad 3(-5)-nerved from ± cordate base, usually 3-lobed, margins coarsely toothed biserrate, tip or apices of lobes acuminate-caudate, veins hairy beneath; stipules linear-lanceolate, 1.5-2.5 cm long, membranous. Male catkins, 2.5-5 (-6) cm long villous. Male flowers: sepals elliptic-oblong, c. 1.5 mm long, obtuse, hairy stamens with basally flattened filaments. Female catkins cylindric, much shorted than male, 0.5-1.5 cm long, excluding 3.6 mm long, vinous peduncle. Female flowers: sepals (2-) 3 (-4), broadly oblong, equal, c. 2 mm long, c. 1.5 mm broad, ciliate; styles connate at the base, c. 2 mm long, densely lanate hairy, patent. Sorosis fleshy, purple or reddish-purple, 8-25 mm long, sweet, edible.
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