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Flora Data (Last Modified On 10/24/2013)
Species Cyathea pinnula (Christ) R. C. Moran
Note Basionym: Alsophila pinnula Christ, Prim. Flor. Costaric. 3: 43. 1901. TYPE: Costa Rica. Limon: Rio La Matina, Pittier 10267 (holo- type, P-Herb. Christ not seen, photo MICH; fragments NY, US ex P).
Description Trunk 0.4-2 m tall, 4-7 cm wide; petiole light brown, spiny or not spiny, the spines 2-5 mm long; petiole scales 10-20 x 3-5 mm, lanceolate, shiny, brown with narrow brownish white borders; petiole scurf consisting of minute light brown trichomidia and squamellae, deciduous and often apparently ab- sent; lamina 2-pinnate-pinnatifid, elliptic, sparsely pubescent between the veins; pinnae 8-14 pairs, narrowly alate between the distal pinnules, stalked, the stalk 4-15 mm long; pinnules 3-7.5 x 1-1.5 cm, sessile or nearly so; ultimate segments 2-3 mm wide, 9-16 pairs per pinnule, obtuse, serrate; rachis glabrous; costae pubescent with trichomes similar to those on the costules, lacking scales; costules pu- bescent and scaly, the trichomes 0.3-0.4 mm long, subulate, hyaline, erect to spreading, almost always infected by a black acicular fungus (Fig. 3b, d), the scales shiny, golden, ovate with acuminate apices to lanceolate, flat to (especially on distal portions of the lamina) bullate; veins simple, unbranched, pu- bescent with hairs like those on the axes; laminar tissue between the veins sparsely pubescent with hairs like those of the axes; sori ca. medial; pa- raphyses conspicuous, equaling or slightly longer than the sporangia, hyaline, jointed; indusia absent.
Specimen COSTA RICA. ALAJUELA: Reserva Forestal, San Ram6n, 1,350-1,500 m, Carvajal 334 (MO, UC); 17-20 km NNW of San Ram6n by road on way to San Lorenzo, 4-7 km N of Balsa, 750 m, Liesner & Judziewicz 14701 (MO, UC); Univ. of San Ram6n's Biological Field Station, ca. 20 km N of San Ram6n, along Rio San Lorencito, cloud forest, 10?15'N, 84030'W, 800-900 m, Moran 4133 (CR, MO, UC). CARTAGO: SE of Turrialba, ca. 3 km NE of La Suiza, 1,200 m, Lellinger 1401 (MICH, MO, US). GUANACASTE: Parque Nacional Rinc6n de la Vieja, SE slopes of Volcan Santa Maria, above Estaci6n Hacienda Santa Maria, 900- 1,200 m, Davidse et al. 23401 (MO, UC). HEREDIA: between Rio Peje and Rio Sardinalito, Atlantic slope of Volcan Barva, 700-750 m, Grayum & Jermy 6778 (MO, UC). SAN JOSE: Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, from La Montura to Los Chorritos, 1,200 m, G6mez et al. 20926 (MO, UC). PANAMA. CHIRIQUi: Fortuna Dam area, N fork of the Quebrada de Arena, 1,100 m, Churchill et al. 4674 (MO, UC); vic. of Fortuna Dam, in valley of Rio Chiriqui, along aqueduct trail for water supply for IRHE facilities, 1,100-1,200 m, Croat 66590 (MO, UC); E of main camp at Fortuna Dam site, 1,400-1,500 m, Folsom et al. 5450 (MO, UC). VERAGUAS: Cerro Tute, ca. 2 km N of Santa F6, along ridge trail to summit, 900-1,000 m, Moran 4032 (MO). COLOMBIA. CHocO: W of Tutunendo, Quibd6o-Medellin road, 100 m, Gentry & Brand M. 36866 (MO); banks of Quebrada Togoroma, dense tidal forest, Killip & Cuatrecasas 39084 (US).
Note This species was treated by Barrington (1978) in his Nomina Incertae Sedis because he lacked suf- ficient material to make a certain assignment. Al- though Christ did not cite a type in his original publication, the above specimen is probably the one he used to describe the species because it is the only specimen in his herbarium labeled in his hand as "Alsophila pinnula, sp. nov." Cyathea pinnula grows in wet forests, cloud for- ests, and (rarely) tidal forests from (0 to)700 to 1,500 m. It can be distinguished from other species of Cyathea in Mesoamerica by the following com- bination of characteristics: costal scales golden and erose-margined, lamina pubescent between the veins, fertile veins unbranched, sori nonindusiate, and pa- raphyses conspicuous. A peculiar characteristic is that all specimens examined were infected by a black, acicular fungus. Although the fungus occurs on the laminar tissue and axes, it is most conspicuous when it grows through and out of the hairs (Fig. 3b, d) and scales. Cyathea pinnula is common in Costa Rica and Panama and has previously been identified (often tentatively with a "?" or "cf.") as C. wendlandii (Kuhn) Domin or C. nigripes (C. Chr.) Domin. Cy- athea wendlandii differs from C. pinnula by its petiole scales that are smaller (10-15 x 1-1.5 mm) and linear, denser petiole scurf, once-forked fertile veins, entire to crenulate ultimate segments, infra- medial sori, minute (ca. 0.1 mm long) appressed hairs on the costules, and tangled mass of paraphyses that are conspicuous after all the sporangia have fallen. In contrast, C. pinnula has larger (10-20 x 3-5 mm) lanceolate petiole scales, sparse or absent petiole scurf, simple fertile veins, serrate lobes and segments, medial sori, longer (0.3-0.4 mm) spreading to erect hairs on the costules, and untangled paraphyses that do not appear as a dense mass after the sporangia have fallen (Fig. 3b, e). Cyathea nigripes differs from C. pinnula by its forked fertile veins, entire to crenulate lobes or segments, absence of hairs on the costules, presence of numerous minute squamellae on the costules, brownish costular scales, few short paraphyses, and inframedial sori (Fig. 9c, d). Cyathea pinnula resembles C. pilosissima (Ba- ker) Domin (in Panama and the Choc6) by having the laminar tissue pubescent between the veins; how- ever, C. pilosissima differs by having more dense, even pubescence between the veins, pubescent ra- chises, white costular scales, and entire or crenulate ultimate segments.
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