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Published In: Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique 3(1): 319. 1789. (Encycl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/10/2018)
Acceptance : Accepted
Species profile     (Last Modified On 11/25/2019)
Typical Adult Height Range (m): 4-8
Exceptional Height (m) [Note: often only attained in more mesic conditions]: 16
Life Form: Shrubby Tree
Annual Precipitation Range (mm): 0-149, 150-249, 250-399, 400-599, 600-799, >800
Habitat(s): Watercourses, Freshwater Wetlands
Substrate(s): Sandy, Rocky
Global Regions of Occurrence: West Africa, East Africa, West Asia
- Geographic Range: Probably native to SE As? (Indonesia, Malaysia) present elsewhere Mauritania to Cameroon, tropical Africa and Arabian Peninsula (Qatar), Asia, widely planted elsewhere
Single-country Endemic: No
IUCN Redlist Category: LC (Least Concern)
Lifespan: Medium (50-200 years)
Armament (spines, thorns, etc.): yes
Leaf Duration: Evergreen
Uses: Food/Beverages, Fuel, Timber, Forage/Fodder, Medicinal, Chemicals, Shade/Shelter, Live Fences
Potentially invasive: Yes



Specimens whose coordinates are enclosed in square brackets [ ] have been mapped to a standard reference mark based on political units.
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