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Published In: Nova Guinea: a journal of botany, zoology, anthropology, ethnography, geology and palaeontology in the Papuan region, new series 9(1): 31. 1958. (15 Jul 1958) (Nova Guinea, n.s.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/10/2022)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 7/9/2018)
Contributor Text: R.R. Mill
Contributor Institution: Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Scotland
Synonym Text:

Lobelia pumila Burm. f., Fl. Indica 186, t. 60 f. 3. 1768; Lindernia japonica Thunb., Fl. Jap. 253. 1784; Mazus rugosus Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 358. 1790; Sweet, Brit. Flow. Gard. t. 36. 1823; Benth., Scroph. Ind. 27. 1835; Aitch., Cat. Pls. Punjab & Sind 106. 1869 p.p. excl. pl. Jammu; Hillebr., Fl. Hawaiian Isl. 324. 1888; Haines, Bot. Bihar & Orissa 2: 621. 1902; King & Gamble, Fl. Malay Penin. 343. 1904; Kashyap & Joshi, Lahore Distr. Fl. 187, f. 157. 1936; Gratiola goodeniifolia Hornem., Enum. Pl. Hafn. 19. 1807; Hornemannia bicolor Willd., Enum. 654. 1809; Link, Enum. 2: 143. 1822; Reichenb., Ic. Pl. Exot. t. 37. 1824; Mazus japonicus (Thunb.) O. Kuntze, Revis, Gen. Pl. 462. 1891; Pennell in Addisonia 13: t. 429. 1928 (flower blue); Hand.-Mazz., Symbol. Sin 7(2, 4); 833. 1936; Gorudkova in Schischkin & Bobrov, Fl. URSS 22: 316. 1955; Li in Brittonia 8: 31. 1954; Ohwi, Fl. Japan (Engl.) 795; R. K. Gupta, Fl. Nainitalensis 247. 1968; Tsoong in Fl. R. P. Sin. 67(2): 187. 1979 p.p. excl. vars. delavayi, wangii & macrocalyx; Rech.f., Fl. Iranica 147: 284, t. 239. 1981; Mazus mccannii Blatter & Hallb. in J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 25: 423. 1918; Santapau in Rec. Bot. Surv. India 16(1): 165. 1960; Mazus goodeniifolius (Hornem.) Pennell in J. Arn. Arb. 24: 249. 1943; Pennell, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Monogr. 5: 34. 1943; R. R. Stewart, Annot. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. Kashm. 653. 1972.

Flower/Fruit: Fl. Per.: December to April.

Type: [Vietnam] in agris Cochinchinae, Loureiro

Kashmir, K. Ganapathi (K! – not localized, record doubtful). 

Distribution: Afghanistan, Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), China, Japan, N & W. India, S. E. Asia from Burma to New Guinea. Introduced in Hawaii (Hillenbrand, l.c.). Growing in moist shaded habitats, often as a weed in mango gardens, on heavy loam or sandy clay soil. 

Treated here in a very broad sense, yet excluding the much more hairy plant which is readily separated as M. delavayi, and also excluding the surculose plants included within M. pumilus by recent Chinese workers (Tsoong lc.; Wu l.c.). In the Indian subcontinent, M. pumilus s.l. has a very curious disjunct distribution, occurring throughout the Himalaya and N. India and as far south as Punjab and Orissa, and with another population much further south on the Western Ghats. There are no records at all of any species of Mazus from Tamil Nadu or other south-eastern Indian states, in spite of the fact that Lobelia pumila was described from Coromandel, and the only record from Ceylon cited by Cramer refers to specimens collected in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kandy, and therefore probably growing as an introduced weed. The taxon as treated here is very vsriable in leaf shape, flower folour and other characters. Some authors regard the plant of temperate regions from Afghanistan to Japan (“M. japonicus”) as distinct from the plant of more tropical regions (“M. pumilus, M. goodeniifolius, M. rugosus”). Attention is drawn to the comment made by Walker (l.c. 1976) that the taxonomy of the species complex will only be clarified when critical studies are made on an extensive series of living plants from a wide range of localities, and combined with detailed examination of herbarium specimens from the entire range. 

Map Location:

C-7 Rawalpindi: 25 miles from Rawalpindi, 14.3.1967, Khadija Aziz s.n. (KUH); C-8 Lahore: between Gujranwala and Sheikhupura, 29.3.1984, M. Qaiser & A. Ghafoor 7314 (KUH); D-7 Faisalabad: Lyallpur Agricultural University, 24.12.1969, M. Qaiser 318 (KUH); D-8 Lahore: 40 miles from Lahore on way to Changa Manga, 3.3.1978, M. Qaiser & Shaharyar 6937 (KUH); Lahore: Changa Manga, 1.5.1969, Sultanul Abedin 2639 (KUH); Lahoe: Baghi-Jinnah [Bagh-I-Jinnah], 27.4.1969, Sultanul Abedin 2313 (KUH); Lahroe: Changa Manga, 2.5.1969, Sultanul Abedin 2578 (KUH: very robust and tall, with 20-32 flowers in each inflorescence, but apparently sterile); Lahore: Government College garden, Lahore, 15.4.1967, Khadija Aziz & Saida Qureshi s.n. (KUH); F-5 Khairpur: 12.3.1956, S. I. Ali 1243 (K, KUH); Khairpur: 12.3.1956, S. M. H. Jafri 1243 (KUH).


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Annual herb, not stoloniferous. Whole plant usually drying rather dark brownish green. Stems several, 5-20 (-35) cm, procumbent to ascending, slightly flexuous, very sparingly eglandular-puberulent throughout and with sparse sessile glands especially above and in inflorescence; eglandular hairs very short, unequal, from less than 0.05 mm to note more than 0.3 (-0.4) mm. Basal leaves sessile or with short indistinct  petiole 1-11 (-14) mm; cauline sessile or rarely very shortly petiolate. Lamina obovate to ovate or almost suborbicular, 7-30 x 2.5-15 mm, cuneate at base, apex rounded, margin shallowly dentate or crenate with (1-) 2-3 teeth per side, sometimes subentire; surfaces subglarbous or with a few scattered thin short hairs, sometimes with ± dense sessile glands. Inflorescence secund or subsecund, 2-11 (-32)-flowered, glandular- and eglandular-puberulent. Bracts 0.5-1.5 mm in flower, to 3 mm in fruit, linear-triangulr-lanceolate, hyaline at least in part, glabrous, sometimes caducous. Pedicels 2-5.5 mm in flower, (3-) 4-11.5 mm in fruit, lowest ones usually longer than fruiting calyx but occasionally subequal or shorter. Calyx campanulate, (2.5-) 3-7 mm in flower, (4.2-) 6-8.5 mm in fruit; tube equal to or shorter than lobes, 1-2.5 mm in flower, ± ventricose and (1.2-) 2.5-4 mm in fruit; lobes triangular-ovate, acute, 2-4 mm in flower, 3-6 mm in fruit and becoming stellate-patent with the tip sometimes recurved. Corolla 4.5-10 mm, white or whitish blue with upper lip purplish or blue and with orange spots on palate of lower lip; lips glandular with clavate hairs. Capsule globose to obovoid, 3-4 x 2.5 mm, with short apiculus c. 0.2 mm. Seeds 0.3-0.4 x 0.15 x 0.05 mm, oblong cuneate, light brown, rounded to obliquely truncate at both ends, with a tiny projection from one lower corner and one diagonally opposite at apex, finely verruculose and with longitudinal ridges. 

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