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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/16/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 8/16/2013)
Species Stemodia durantifolia (L.) Swartz
PlaceOfPublication Obs. Bot. 240. 1791.
Note Based on Capraria durantifolia L.
Synonym Veronica caule hexandra. . . Sloane, Cat. Plant. Jamaic. 81. 1696; Voy. Isl. Madera . . . 196, tab. 124, fig. 2. 1707. TYPE: not seen. Lysimachia coerulea galericulata . . . Sloane, Cat. PI. Jamaic. 66. 1696; Voy. IsI. Madera . . . 174. 1707. Phaelypea erecta; foliis sessilibus.. . P. Br., Civ. Nat. Hist. Jam. 269. 1756. Based on Veronica caule hexandra .. . Sloane. Cites also Lysimachia coerulea galericulata . . . Sloane. Capraria durantifolia L., Syst. Nat. ed. 10: 1116. 1758 (May-June 1759). Based on Lysimachia coerulea galericulata . . . Sloane; Capraria durantifolia L., PI. Jamaic. Pug. (Amoen. Acad. 97) 399. 28 Nov. 1759. Based on Phaelypea erecta; foliis sessilibus . . . P. Br.; Capraria durantifolia L., Syst. Veg. ed. Murray (ed. 13) 475. 1774; ed. Murray (ed. 14) 567. 1784. C. oppositifolia L., Fl. Jamaic. (Amoen. Acad. 96) 380. 13 Dec. 1759. ?based on Phaelypea erecta; foliis sessilibus . . . P. Br. Conobea verticillaris Spreng., Novi Prov. Hort. Acad. Hal. 13. 1818. TYPE: Cult. Berlin, from Brasil, not seen. fide Minod (1918). Stemodia verticillaris (Spreng.) Link, Enum. PI. Hort. Berol. 2: 144. 1822. Conobea viscosa Schrank in Hornschuch, Syll. PI. Nov. 2: 61. 1828. TYPE: not seen. Stemodia chilensis Benth., Bot. Reg. 1470. 1831. TYPE: not seen. Lobelia verticillata Kunze in Poepp., Coll. PI. Chilenso Exsiccate ex Presl., Prodr. Mongr. Lobel. 52. 1836. nomen nudum. TYPE: Chile, Poeppig 170 (MO). Not Stemodia verticillata (Mill.) Hassl. ?Stemodia berteroana Benth. in DC., Prodr. 10: 384. 1846. TYPE: Hispaniola, Bertero (?G, not seen; not G-DC.). Stemodiacra durantifolia (L.) Morong, PI. coll. Paraguay 183. 1880-1891, not seen, fide Minod (1918). S. chilensis (Benth.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 466. 1891. ?S. berteroana (Benth.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 466. 1891. S. durantifolia (Benth.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 466. 1891. Stemodia erecta (P. Br.) Minod, Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve ser. 2. 10: 212. 1918.
Description Erect, viscid-pubescent herbs to 1 m tall, branching freely, the stems compressed on emerging, somewhat woody below, slender above, drying angled, hispid with short, whitish, gland-tipped hairs. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, varying greatly in size on the same plant, the lower leaves often 4 (-6) cm long, 10 (-15) mm wide, the upper leaves mostly less than 2.5 cm long, 5 mm wide, apically acute, basally auriculate and clasping the stem, appearing perfoliate, serrate, the teeth sharply ascending, callose tipped, viscid with scattered erect, gland-tipped, slender hairs and sessile glands, the hairs somewhat longer beneath, the midvein promi- nent, the ca. 5 lateral pinnate veins on each side often obscure. Inflorescence solitary in the leaf axils, often geminate, sometimes aggregated to appear long spicate;' pedicels short, to 0.5 mm long, drying angled, viscid pilose; 2 linear, opposed, pubescent, ca. 2 mm long bracts near the top of the pedicels. Flowers with the calyx 5-lobed nearly to the base, the lobes narrow, acute, costate, ca. 2 mm long, viscid pilose, somewhat accrescent in fruit; corolla blue or purplish, drying dark apically, 5-6 mm long, outside minutely puberulent and glandular upwards, 2-lipped, the upper lip ca. 2 mm long, truncate or slightly emarginate, bearded in the throat with sturdy clavate hairs, the lower lip 3-lobed, the lobes ca. 1.5 mm long, the stamens 4, the filaments glabrous, terete, inserted at about the same level just below the sinuses in the corolla tube, the lowermost pair somewhat longer, the anthers alike, the connective globose, separating the 2 parallel, basifixed, oblong thecae, the thecae ca. 0.6 mm long, broadly elliptical after dehiscence, light (?yellow) colored; ovary narrowly conical, septally sulcate, somewhat compressed, glabrous, eglandular, the style stout, terete, glabrous, the stigma compressed, fanlike, slightly downcurved, the stigmatic area terminal, linear. Fruit a conical or ovoid capsule ca. 3 mm long, at first dark (?purplish), ultimately stramineous, the placenta dark, narrowly compressed conical, 2-3 mm long, loculicidally and septicidally dehiscent to the base; seeds ca. 0.3 mm long, ellipsoidal, blackish brown, tuberculate in lines.
Habit herbs
Distribution ranging from Arizona and California through the Antilles and Central America to Uruguay and Chile.
Note In Panama it occurs as a ruderal or street weed in lowlands, especially in the Pacific drainage. It may be recognized by its auriculate-based, lanceolate leaves and clusters of small, subsessile flowers, thus somewhat resembling some species of Hyptis, e.g., H. verticillata.
Specimen CANAL ZONE: Near Boy Scout Camp, Croat 12917 (MO). Mangrove swamp between Gatuin and Fort Sherman, Croat 15396 (MO). Curatella savanna W of Ft. Kobbe, Duke & Mussell 6582 (MO). SE side of Madden Lake near the Puente Natural, Nee & Hansen 14070 (MO). Between Miraflores and Pedro Miguel, 30-50 m, Pittier 2504 (US). Balboa, Standley 25618, 30903 (both US). Miraflores Lake, White & White 197 (MO). Pipeline Road N of Gamboa, Wilbur & Weaver 11223 (DUKE). COCLE: Between Porto Posada and Penonome, Williams 166 (NY, US). COLON: Mouth of Rio Piedras, Lewis et al. 3188 (MO). LOS SANTOS: Near Tonosi, Duke 12492 (MO, OS). Rio Tonosi near Tonosi, Lewis et al. 1555 (MO, US). PANAMA: Without other locality, Duchassaing (P). By airstrip near beach in Panama City, Duke 4005 (MO). Isla del Rey, Duke 9572 (MO, OS). Between Rio Pacora and Chepo, Dwyer et al. 5116 (MO). Sabanas, Heriberto 76 (US). Near Tapia River, Juan Diaz regioi, Maxon & Harvey 6756 (US). La Jagua vicinity of Pacora River, 25-60 m, McDaniel 10322 (MO). Sabanas N of Panama City, Paul 581 (US). Sabana de Dormisolo near Chepo, 60-80 m, Pittier 4665 (US). Agricultural Experiment Station at Matias Hernandez, Pittier 6880 (NY, US). Rio Tapia, Standley 28225 (US). Near Matias Hernandez, Standley 28898 (US). Be- tween Las Sabanas and Matias HernAndez, Standley 31913 (US).
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